Senior School Certificate Examination (XI-XII) Business Studies 2018-19

CBSE Curriculum for Senior School Certificate Examination (XI-XII) Business Studies 2018-19

18. BUSINESS STUDIES (Code No. 054) CBSE
Rationale
The courses in Business Studies and Accountancy are introduced at + 2 stage of Senior Secondary Education as formal commerce education is provided after first ten years of schooling. Therefore, it becomes necessary that instructions in these subjects are given in such a manner that students have a good understanding of the principles and practices bearing in business (trade and industry) as well as their relationship with the society.
Business is a dynamic process that brings together technology, natural resources and
human initiative in a constantly changing global environment. To understand the framework in which a business operates, a detailed study of the organisation and management of business processes and its interaction with the environment is required. Globalisation has changed the way organizations transact their business.
Information Technology is becoming a part of business operations in more and more
organisations. Computerised systems are fast replacing other systems. E-business and other related concepts are picking up fast which need to be emphasized in the curriculum.
The course in Business Studies prepares students to analyse, manage, evaluate and
respond to changes which affect business. It provides a way of looking at and interacting with the business environment. It recognizes the fact that business influences and is influenced by social, political, legal and economic forces.
It allows students to appreciate that business is an integral component of society and
develops an understanding of many social and ethical issues.
Therefore, to acquire basic knowledge of the business world, a course in Business
Studies would be useful. It also informs students of a range of study and work options and bridges the gap between school and work.
Objectives:
·    To develop students with an understanding of the processes of business and its environment;
·    To acquaint students with the dynamic nature and inter-dependent aspects of business;
·    To develop an interest in the theory and practice of business, trade and industry;
·    To familiarize students with theoretical foundations of the process of organizing and managing the operations of a business firm;
·    To help students appreciate the economic and social significance of business activity and the social cost and benefits arising there from;
·    To acquaint students with the practice of managing the operations and resources of business;
·    To  enable  students  to  act  more  effectively  and  responsibly  as  consumers, employers, employees and citizens;
·    To develop a business attitude and skills in students.
·    To inculcate appropriate attitude and develop skills among students to pursue higher education, world of work including self employment.
BUSINESS STUDIES (Code No. 054)
CBSE CLASS–XI (2018-19)
One Paper                                                                                                   100 Marks
3 Hours
UnitsPeriodsMarks
Part AFoundations of Business
1Nature and Purpose of Business2220
2Forms of Business Organisations26
3Public, Private and Global Enterprises2218
4Business Services22
5Emerging Modes of Business1212
6Social Responsibility of Business and Business Ethics16
Total12050
Part BFinance and Trade
7Sources of Business Finance3020
8Small Business16
9Internal Trade3020
10International Business14
11Project Work3010
Total12050
Part A: Foundation of Business                                                                120 Periods
Concept includes meaning and features
Unit 1: Evolution and Fundamentals of Business                                     22 Periods
History of Commerce in India: Indigenous Banking System, Rise of Intermediaries, Transport, Trading               Communities: Merchant Corporations, Major Trade Centres, Major Imports and Exports, Position of Indian Sub-Continent in the World Economy.After going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    Know the History of Commerce in India
Business -Concept
·    Concept includes meaning and features
After going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    Understand the concept of business with special reference to economic and non-economic activities.
·    Discuss the characteristics of business.
Business, profession and employment- Concept·    Understand the concept of business, profession and employment.
·    Differentiate between business, profession and employment.
Objectives of business·    Appreciate the economic and social objectives of business.
·    Examine the role of profit in business.
Classification of business activities – Industry and Commerce·    Understand the broad categories of business activities- industry and commerce.
Industry-types: primary, secondary, tertiary Meaning and subgroups·    Describe the various types of industries.
Commerce-trade: (types-internal, external; wholesale and retail) and auxiliaries to trade; (banking, insurance, transportation, warehousing, communication, and advertising) – meaning·    Discuss the meaning of commerce, trade and auxiliaries to trade.
·    Discuss the meaning of different types of trade and auxiliaries to trade.
·    Examine the role of commerce- trade and auxiliaries to trade.
Business risk-Concept·    Understand the concept of risk as a special characteristic of business.
·    Examine the nature and causes of business risks.
Unit 2: Forms of Business organizations                                           26 Periods
Sole Proprietorship-Concept, merits and limitations.After going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
· List the different forms of business organizations and understand their meaning.
·    Identify and explain the concept, merits and limitations of Sole Proprietorship.
Partnership-Concept, types, merits and limitation of partnership, registration of a partnership firm, partnership deed. Types of partners·    Identify and explain the concept, merits and limitations of a Partnership firm.
·    Understand the types of partnership on the basis of duration and on the basis of liability.
·    Define limited liability partnership.
·    State the need for registration of a partnership firm.
·    Discuss types of partners –active, sleeping, secret, nominal and partner by estoppel.
Hindu Undivided Family Business: Concept·    Understand the concept of Hindu Undivided Family Business.
Cooperative Societies-Concept, merits, and limitations.·    Identify and explain the concept, merits and limitations of Cooperative Societies.
·    Understand the concept of
consumers, producers, marketing, farmers, credit and housing co- operatives.
Company-Concept, merits and limitations; Types: Private, Public and One Person Company – Concept·    Identify and explain the concept, merits and limitations of private and public companies.
·    Understand the meaning of one person company.
·    Distinguish between a private company and a public company.
Formation of company-stages, important documents to be used in formation of a company·    Highlight the stages in the formation of a company.
·    Discuss the important documents used in the various stages in the formation of a company.
Choice of form of business organization·    Distinguish between the various forms of business organizations.
·    Explain the factors that influence the choice of a suitable form of business organization.
Unit 3: Public, Private and Global Enterprises                                   22 Periods
Public sector and private sector enterprises – ConceptAfter going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    Develop an understanding of Public sector and private sector enterprises
Forms of public sector enterprises: Departmental Undertakings, Statutory Corporations and Government Company.· Identify and explain the features, merits and limitations of different forms of public sector enterprises
Global enterprises (MNCs) – Features, Joint ventures, Public private partnership – concept·    Develop an understanding of global enterprises, joint ventures and public private partnership by studying their meaning and features.
Unit 4: Business Services                                                                    22 Periods
Business services and its types – Meaning. Banking: Types of bank accounts- savings, current, recurring, fixed deposit and multiple option deposit account.·    Understand the meaning and types of business services.
·    Discuss the meaning and types of Business service Banking
·    Develop an understanding of difference types of bank account.
Banking services with particular reference to Bank Draft, Bank Overdraft, Cash credit. E-Banking meaning, Types of digital payments·    Develop an understanding of the different services provided by banks
Insurance-: Principles, Types –life, health, fire and marine insurance –concept·    Recall the concept of insurance
·    Understand Utmost Good Faith, Insurable Interest, Indemnity, Contribution, Doctrine of Subrogation and Causa Proxima as principles of insurance
·    Discuss the meaning of different types of insurance-life, health, fire, marine insurance.
Postal Service-Mail, Registered Post, Parcel, Speed Post, Courier-meaning.·    Understand the utility of different telecom services
Unit 5: Emerging Modes of Business                                                  12 Periods
E-business (concept), scope and benefitsAfter going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    Give the meaning of e-business.
·    Discuss the scope of e-business.
·    Appreciate the benefits of e- business
·    Distinguish e-business from traditional business.
Business Process Outsourcing (BPO): Concept, need and scope·    Understand the concept of outsourcing.
·    Examine the scope of outsourcing, appreciate the need of outsourcing.
·    Discuss the meaning of Business Process Outsourcing and Knowledge Process Outsourcing
Unit 6: Social Responsibility of Business and Business Ethics      16 Periods
Concept of social responsibilityAfter going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    State the concept of social responsibility.
Case of social responsibility·    Examine the case for social responsibility.
Responsibility towards owners, investors, consumers, employees, government and community.·    Identify the social responsibility towards different interest groups.
Environment protection and business- Meaning and role·    Appreciate the role of business in environment protection.
Business Ethics-Concept and Elements·    State the concept of business ethics.
·    Describe the elements of business ethics.
Part B: Finance and Trade                                                                  120 Periods
Concept includes meaning and features
Unit 7: Sources of Business Finance                                                  30 Periods
Concept of business financeAfter going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    State the meaning, nature and importance of business finance.
Owners’ funds- equity shares, preferences share, retained earnings, Global Depository receipt (GDR), American Depository Receipt (ADR) and International Depository Receipt (IDR) – concept·    Classify the various sources of funds into owners’ funds.
·    State the meaning of owners’ funds.
·    Understand the meaning of Global Depository receipts, American Depository Receipts and International Depository Receipts.
Borrowed funds: debentures and bonds, loan from financial institution and commercial banks, public deposits, trade credit, Inter Corporate Deposits (ICD).·    State the meaning of borrowed funds.
·    Discuss the concept of debentures, bonds, loans from financial institutions and commercial banks, Trade credit and inter corporate deposits.
·    Distinguish between owners’ funds and borrowed funds.
Unit 8: Small Business and Enterprises                                                 16 Periods
Entrepreneurship Development (ED): Concept, Characteristics and Need
·    Process Entrepreneurship Development: Start-up India Scheme, ways to fund start-up
·    Intellectual Property Rights and Entrepreneurship
After going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    Understand the concept of Entrepreneurship Development (ED), Intellectual Property Rights
Small scale enterprise as defined by MSMED Act 2006 (Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise Development Act)After going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    Understand the meaning of small business
Role of small business in India with special reference to rural areas·    Discuss the role of small business in India
Government schemes and agencies for small scale industries: National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC) and District Industrial Centre (DIC) with special reference to rural, backward areas·    Appreciate the various Government schemes and agencies for development of small scale industries. NSIC and DIC with special reference to rural, backward area.
Unit 9: Internal Trade                                                                                 30 Periods
Internal trade – meaning and types services rendered by a wholesaler and a retailer
GST (Goods and Services Tax): Concept and key-features
After going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    State the meaning and types of internal trade.
·    Appreciate the services of wholesalers and retailers.
·    Understand the concept of GST
Types of retail-trade-Itinerant and small scale fixed shops retailers·    Explain the different types of retail trade.
Large scale retailers-Departmental stores, chain stores – concept·    Highlight the distinctive features of departmental stores, chain stores and mail order business.
Concept of automatic vending machine·    State the concept of automatic vending machine.
Main documents used in internal trade: Performa invoice, invoice, debit note, credit note. Lorry receipt (LR) and Railways Receipt (RR).·    Describe the main documents used in internal trade.
Terms of Trade: Cash on Delivery (COD), Free on Board (FOB), Cost, Insurance and Freight (CIF), Errors and Omissions Excepted (E&OE).·    Develop an understanding of the various terms used in internal trade.
Unit 10: International Trade                                                                  14 Periods
International trade – conceptAfter going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    Understand the concept of international trade.
International trade: concept and benefits·    Describe the scope of international trade to the nation and business firms.
Export trade- Meaning, objectives and procedure of Export Trade·    State the meaning and objectives of export trade.
·    Explain the important steps involved in executing export trade.
Import Trade- Meaning, objectives and procedure·    State the meaning and objectives of import trade.
·    Discuss the important steps involved in executing import trade.
Documents involved in International Trade; indent, letter of credit, shipping order, shipping bills, mate’s receipt(DA/DP), specimen of the documents, importance·    Develop an understanding of the various documents used in international trade.
·    Identify the specimen of the various documents used in international trade.
·    Highlight the importance of the
documents needed in connection with international trade transactions
World Trade Organization (WTO) meaning and objectives·    State the meaning of World Trade Organization.
·    Discuss the objectives of World Trade Organization in promoting international trade.
Unit 11: Project Work                                                                           30 Periods
As per CBSE guidelines.
CBSE BUSINESS STUDIESQUESTION PAPER DESIGN YEAR 2018-19
Code No. 054                                      CLASS XI
Time: 3 hrsMax. Marks – 90
S NTypology of QuestionsLearning Outcomes & Testing SkillsVery Short Answer (VSA) (1
Mark)
Short Answ er -I (SA-I) (3
Mark s)
Short Answer -II (SA-II) (4
Marks)
Long Answer (LA) (5 Marks)Essay Type (6 Marks )Total Marks%
Wei ghta ge
1.Remembering- (Knowledge based Simple recall questions, to know specific facts, terms, concepts, principles, or theories; Identify, define, or recite, information)·       Reasoning
·       Analytical Skills
·       Critical Skills
21111416%
2.Understanding- (Comprehension –to be familiar with meaning and to understand conceptually, interpret, compare, contrast, explain, paraphrase, or interpret information)22111820%
3.Application- (Use abstract information in concrete situation, to apply knowledge to new situations; Use given content to interpret a situation, provide an example, or solve a problem)211122629%
4.High Order Thinking Skills- (Analysis & SynthesisClassify, compare, contrast, or differentiate between different pieces of information; Organize and/or integrate unique pieces of information from a variety of sources)211112022%
5.Evaluation- (Appraise, judge, and/or justify the value or worth of a decision or outcome, or to predict outcomes based on values)1111213%
TOTAL-1 project (108×1=86×3=5×4= 204×5= 204×6= 2490(27)100
Marks)18project%
(10)
Estimated Time (in minutes)8 min27
min
30 min40 min60 min165 min+15 min for revision
CLASS–XII (2018-19)
CBSE COURSE STRUCTURE
One Paper                                          3 Hours                                 Theory: 80 Marks Project: 20 Marks
UnitsPeriodsMarks
Part APrinciples and Functions of Management
1.Nature and Significance of Management1416
2Principles of Management14
3Business Environment12
4Planning1414
5Organising18
6Staffing1620
7Directing18
8Controlling14
12050
Part BBusiness Finance and Marketing
9Financial Management2215
10Financial Markets20
11Marketing Management3215
12Consumer Protection16
Part CProject Work (One)3020
12050
Part A: Principles and Functions of Management                                  120 Periods
Concept includes meaning and features
Unit 1: Nature and Significance of Management                                14 Periods
Management-concept, objectives, and importance
·    Concept includes meaning and features
After going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    Understand the concept of management.
·    Explain the meaning of ‘Effectiveness and Efficiency.
·    Discuss the objectives of management.
·    Describe the importance of management.
Management as Science, Art and Profession·    Examine the nature of management as a science, art and profession.
Levels of Management·    Understand the role of top, middle and lower levels of management
Management functions-planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling·    Explain the functions of management
Coordination- concept and importance·    Discuss the concept and characteristics of coordination.
·    Explain the importance of coordination.
Unit 2: Principles of Management                                                                 14 Periods
Principles of Management- concept and significanceAfter going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    Understand the concept of principles of management.
·    Explain the significance of management principles.
Fayol’s principles of management·    Discuss the principles of management developed by Fayol.
Taylor’s Scientific management- principles and techniques·    Explain the principles and techniques of ‘Scientific Management’.
·    Compare the contributions of Fayol and Taylor.
Unit 3: Business Environment                                                             12 Periods
Business Environment- concept and importanceAfter going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    Understand the concept of ‘Business Environment’.
·    Describe the importance of business environment
Dimensions of Business Environment- Economic, Social, Technological, Political and Legal
Demonetization – concept and features
·    Describe the various dimensions of ‘Business Environment’.
·    Understand the concept of demonetization
Impact of Government policy changes on business with special reference to liberalization, privatization and globalization in India·    Examine the impact of government policy changes on business in India with reference to liberalisation, privatization and globalisation since 1991.
·    Discuss the managerial response to changes in business environment.
Unit 4: Planning                                                                                     14 Periods
Concept, importance and limitationAfter going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    Understand the concept of planning.
·    Describe the importance of planning.
·    Understand the limitations of planning.
Planning process·    Describe the steps in the process of planning.
Single use and standing plans. Objectives, Strategy, Policy, Procedure, method Rule, budget and Programme·    Develop an understanding of single use and standing plans
·    Describe objectives, policies, strategy, procedure, method, rule, budget and programme as types of plans.
Unit 5: Organising                                                                                 18 Periods
Concept and importanceAfter going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    Understand the concept of organizing as a structure and as a process.
·    Explain the importance of organising.
Organising Process·    Describe the steps in the process of organizing
Structure of organisation- functional and divisional concept. Formal and informal organisation- concept·    Describe functional and divisional structures of organisation.
·    Explain the advantages, disadvantages and suitability of functional and divisional structure.
·    Understand the concept of formal and informal organisation.
·    Discuss the advantages, disadvantages of formal and informal organisation.
Delegation: concept, elements and importance·    Understand the concept of delegation.
·    Describe the elements of delegation.
·    Appreciate the importance of Delegation.
Decentralization: concept and importance·    Understand the concept of decentralisation.
·    Explain the importance of decentralisation.
·    Differentiate between delegation and decentralisation.
Unit 6: Staffing                                                                                            16 Periods
Concept and importance of staffingAfter going through this unit, the student/
learner would be able to:
·    Understand the concept of staffing.
·    Explain the importance of staffing
Staffing as a part of Human Resource Management concept·    Understand the specialized duties and activities performed by Human Resource Management
Staffing process·    Describe the steps in the process of staffing
Recruitment process·    Understand the meaning of recruitment.
·    Discuss the sources of recruitment.
·    Explain the merits and demerits of internal and external sources of recruitment.
Selection- process·    Understand the meaning of selection.
·    Describe the steps involved in the process of selection.
Training and Development- Concept and importance, Methods of training- on the job and off the job – vestibule training, apprenticeship training and internship training·    Understand the concept of training and development.
·    Appreciate the importance of training to the organisation and to the employees.
·    Discuss the meaning of induction training, vestibule training, apprenticeship training and internship training.
·    Differentiate between training and development.
·    Discuss on the job and off the job methods of training.
Unit 7: Directing                                                                                     18 Periods
Concept and importanceAfter going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    Describe the concept of directing.
·    Discuss the importance of directing
Elements of Directing·    Describe the four elements of directing
Supervision –concept, function of a supervisor·    Understand the concept of supervision.
·    Discuss the functions performed by a supervisor.
Motivation-concept, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Financial and non-financial incentives·    Understand the concept of motivation.
·    Develop an understanding of Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs.
·    Discuss the various financial and
non-financial incentives.
Leadership- concept, styles- authoritative, democratic and laissez faire·    Understand the concept of leadership.
·    Understand the various styles of leadership.
Communication- concept, formal and informal communication; barriers to effective communication, how to overcome the barriers·    Understand the concept of communication
·    Understand the elements of the communication process.
·    Discuss the concept of formal and informal communication.
·    Discuss the various barriers to effective communication.
·    Suggest measures to overcome barriers to communication.
Unit 8: Controlling                                                                                 14 Periods
Concept and importanceAfter going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    Understand the concept of controlling.
·    Explain the importance of controlling.
Relationship between planning and controlling·    Describe the relationship between planning and controlling
Steps in process of control·    Discuss the steps in the process of controlling.
Part B: Business Finance and Marketing                                          120 Periods
Concept includes meaning and features
Unit 9: Financial Management                                                              22 Periods
Concept, role and objectives of Financial ManagementAfter going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    Understand the concept of financial management.
·    Explain the role of financial management in an organisation.
·    Discuss the objectives of financial management
Financial decisions: investment, financing and dividend- Meaning and factors affecting·    Discuss the three financial decisions and the factors affecting them.
Financial Planning- concept and importance l·    Describe the concept of financial planning and its objectives.
·    Explain the importance of financial planning.
Capital Structure- Concept·    Understand the concept of capital structure.
·    Describe the factors determining the choice of an appropriate capital structure of a company.
Fixed and Working Capital- Concept and factors affecting their requirements·    Understand the concept of fixed and working capital.
·    Describe the factors determining the requirements of fixed and working capital.
Unit 10: Financial Markets                                                                    20 Periods
Financial Markets: Concept, Functions and typesAfter going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    Understand the concept of financial market.
·    Explain the functions of financial market.
·    Understand capital market and money market as types of financial markets.
Money market and its instruments·    Understand the concept of money market.
·    Describe the various money market instruments.
Capital market and its types (primary and secondary), methods of floatation in the primary market·    Discuss the concept of capital market.
·    Explain primary and secondary markets as types of capital market.
·    Differentiate between capital market and money market.
·    Discuss the methods of floating new issues in the primary market.
·    Distinguish between primary and secondary markets.
Stock Exchange- Functions and trading procedure·    Give the meaning of a stock exchange.
·    Explain the functions of a stock exchange.
·    Discuss the trading procedure in a stock exchange.
· Give the meaning of depository services and demat account as used in the trading procedure of securities.
Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) – objectives and functions·    State the objectives of SEBI.
·    Explain the functions of SEBI.
Unit 11: Marketing Management                                                          32 Periods
Selling and Marketing- ConceptAfter going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    Understand the concept of selling, marketing.
·    Explain the features of marketing.
·    Distinguish between marketing and selling.
Marketing Management- Concept·    Describe the concept of marketing management.
Marketing Functions·    Discuss the functions of marketing.
Marketing management philosophies·    Explain marketing management philosophies.
Marketing Mix – Concept and elements·    Understand the concept of marketing mix.
·    Describe the elements of marketing mix.
Product – branding, labelling and packaging – Concept·    Understand the concept of product as an element of marketing mix.
·    Understand the concept of branding, labelling and packaging.
Price- Concept, Factors determining price·    Understand the concept of price as an element of marketing mix.
·    Describe the factors determining price of a product.
Physical Distribution – concept and components, channels of distribution: types, choice of channels.·    Understand the concept of physical distribution.
·    Explain the components of physical distribution.
·    Describe the various channels of distribution.
·    Discuss the factors determining the choice of channels of distribution.
Promotion – Concept and elements; advertising concept, role, objections against advertising, personal selling- concept and qualities of a good salesman, sales promotion- concept and techniques, public relations- concept and role·    Understand the concept of promotion as an element of marketing mix.
·    Describe the elements of promotion mix.
·    Understand the concept of advertising.
·    Describe the role of advertising.
·    Examine the objections to advertising.
·    Understand the concept of personal selling.
·    Discuss the qualities of a good salesman.
·    Understand the concept of sales
promotion.
·    Explain the commonly used techniques of sales promotion.
·    Discuss the concept and role of public relations.
Unit 12: Consumer Protection                                                              16 Periods
Concept and importance of consumer protectionAfter going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:
·    Understand the concept of consumer protection.
·    Describe the importance of consumer protection.
·    Discuss the scope of Consumer Protection Act, 1986
Consumer Protection Act 1986: Meaning of consumer
Rights and responsibilities of consumers Who can file a complaint against whom? Redressal machinery
Remedies available
·    Understand the concept of a consumer according to the Consumer protection Act 1986.
·    Explain the consumer rights
·    Understand the responsibilities of consumers
·    Understand who can file a complaint and against whom?
·    Discuss the legal redressal machinery under Consumer protection Act 1986.
·    Examine the remedies available to the consumer under Consumer protection Act 1986.
Consumer awareness- Role of consumer organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).·    Describe the role of consumer organizations and NGOs in protecting consumers’ interests.
Unit 13: Project Work                                                                            30 Periods
PROJECT WORK IN BUSINESS STUDIES FOR CLASS XI AND XII
Introduction
The course in Business Studies is introduced at Senior School level to provide students
with a sound understanding of the principles and practices bearing in business (trade and industry) as well as their  relationship with the society.  Business is a dynamic process that brings together technology, natural resources and human initiative in a constantly changing global environment. With the purpose to help them understand the framework within which a business operates, and its interaction with the social, economic, technological and legal environment, the CBSE has introduced Project Work in the Business Studies Syllabus for Classes XI and XII. The projects have been designed to allow students to appreciate that business is an integral component of society and help them develop an understanding of the social and ethical issues concerning them.
The project work also aims to empower the teacher to relate all the concepts with what is
happening around the world and the student’s surroundings, making them appear more clear and contextual. This will enable the student to enjoy studies and use his free time effectively in observing what’s happening around.
By means of Project Work the students are exposed to life beyond textbooks giving them
opportunities to refer materials, gather information, analyze it further to obtain relevant information and decide what matter to keep.
Objectives
After doing the Project Work in Business Studies, the students will be able to do the
following:
· develop a practical approach by using modern technologies in the field  of business and management;
· get an opportunity for exposure to the operational environment in the field of business management and related services;
· inculcate important skills of team work, problem solving, time management, information collection, processing, analysing and synthesizing relevant information to derive meaningful conclusions
· get involved in the process of research work; l demonstrate his or her capabilities while working independently and
·    make studies an enjoyable experience to cherish.
CBSE CLASS XI: GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS
This section provides some basic guidelines for the teachers to launch the projects in
Business Studies. It is very necessary to interact, support, guide, facilitate and encourage students while assigning projects to them.
The teachers must  ensure  that  the  project  work  assigned to the students  whether
individually or in group are discussed at different stages right from assignment to drafts review and finalization. Students should be facilitated in terms of providing relevant
materials  or  suggesting  websites,  or  obtaining  required  permissions  from  business
houses, malls etc for their project. The periods assigned to the Project Work should be suitably spaced throughout the academic session. The teachers MUST ensure that the students actually go through the rigors and enjoy the process of doing the project rather than depending on any readymade material available commercially.
The following steps might be followed:
1.  Students must take any one topic during the academic session of Class XI.
2.  The project may be done in a group or individually.
3. The topic should be assigned after discussion with the students in the class and should then be discussed at every stage of submission of the draft/final project work.
4. The teacher should play the role of a facilitator and should closely supervise the process of project completion.
5.  The teachers must ensure that the student’s self esteem should go up, and he
/she should be able to enjoy this process.
6. The project work for each term should culminate in the form of Power Point Presentation/Exhibition/ Skit before the entire class. This will help in developing ICT and communication skills among them.
The teacher should help students to identify any one project from the given topics.
I. Project One: Field Visit
The objective of introducing this project among the students is to give a first hand
experience to them regarding the different types of business units operating in their surroundings, to observe their features and activities and relate them to the theoretical knowledge given in their text books. The students should select a place of field visit from the following: – (Add more as per local area availability.)
1. Visit to a Handicraft unit.
2. Visit to an Industry.
3. Visit to a Whole sale market (vegetables, fruits, flowers, grains, garments, etc.)
4. Visit to a Departmental store.
5. Visit to a Mall.
The following points should be kept in mind while preparing this visit.
1.  Select a suitable day free from rush/crowd with lean business hours.
2.  The teacher must visit the place first and check out on logistics. It’s better to seek permission from the concerned business- incharge.
3.  Visit to be discussed with the students in advance. They should be encouraged to prepare a worksheet containing points of observation and reporting.
4.  Students may carry their cameras (at their own risk) with prior permission for collecting evidence of their observations.
1. Visit to a Handicraft Unit
The purpose of visiting a Handicraft unit is to understand nature and scope of its
business, stake holders involved and other aspects as outlined below
a) The raw material and the processes used in the business: People /parties/firms from
which they obtain their raw material.
b) The market, the buyers, the middlemen, and the areas covered. c) The countries to which exports are made.
d) Mode of payment to workers, suppliers etc.
e) Working conditions.
f) Modernization of the process over a period of time.
g) Facilities, security and training for the staff and workers.
h) Subsidies available/ availed.
i) Any other aspect that the teachers deem fit.
2. Visit to an Industry.
The students are required to observe the following:
a) Nature of the business organisation.
b) Determinants for location of business unit.
c)  Form  of  business  enterprise:  Sole  Proprietorship,  Partnership,  Undivided  Hindu Family, Joint Stock Company (a Multinational Company).
d) Different stages of production/process
e) Auxiliaries involved in the process.
f) Workers employed, method of  wage payment, training  programmes and facilities available.
g) Social responsibilities discharged towards workers, investors, society, environment and government.
h) Levels of management.
i) Code of conduct for employers and employees.
j) Capital structure employed- borrowed v/s owned.
k) Quality control, recycling of defective goods.
l) Subsidies available/availed.
m) Safety Measures employed.
n) Working conditions for labour in observation of Labour Laws.
o) Storage of raw material and finished goods.
p) Transport management for employees, raw material and finished goods.
q)  Functioning  of  various  departments  and  coordination  among  them  (Production, Human Resource, Finance and Marketing)
r) Waste Management.
s) Any other observation.
3. Visit to a whole sale market: vegetables/fruits/flowers/grains/garments etc.
The students are required to observe the following:
a) Sources of merchandise.
b) Local market practices.
c) Any linked up businesses like transporters, packagers, money lenders, agents, etc.
d) Nature of the goods dealt in.
e) Types of buyers and sellers.
f) Mode of the goods dispersed, minimum quantity sold, types of packaging employed.
g) Factors determining the price fluctuations.
h) Seasonal factors (if any) affecting the business.
i) Weekly/ monthly non-working days.
j) Strikes, if any- causes thereof.
k) Mode of payments.
l) Wastage and disposal of dead stock.
m) Nature of price fluctuations, reason thereof.
n) Warehousing facilities available\availed.
o) Any other aspect.
4. Visit to a Departmental store
The students are required to observe the following:
a) Different departments and their lay out.
b) Nature of products offered for sale.
c) Display of fresh arrivals.
d) Promotional campaigns.
e) Spaces and advertisements.
f) Assistance by Sales Personnel.
g)  Billing  counter  at  store  –  Cash,  Credit  Card/  Debit  Card,  swipe  facility.  Added attractions and facilities at the counter.
h) Additional facilities offered to customers
i) Any other relevant aspect.
5. Visit to a Mall.
The students are required to observe the following:
a) Number of floors, shops occupied and unoccupied.
b) Nature of shops, their ownership status
c) Nature of goods dealt in: local brands, international brands,
d) Service business shops- Spas, gym, saloons etc.
e) Rented spaces, owned spaces,
f) Different types of promotional schemes.
g) Most visited shops.
h) Special attractions of the Mall- Food court, Gaming zone or Cinema etc.
i) Innovative facilities.
j) Parking facilities. Teachers may add more to the list.
II. Project Two: Case Study on a Product
a)  Take a product having seasonal growth and regular demand with which students
can relate. For example,
·    Apples from Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir.
·    Oranges from Nagpur,
·    Mangoes from Maharashtra/U.P./Bihar/Andhra Pradesh etc.
·    Strawberries from Panchgani,
·    Aloe vera from Rajasthan,
·    Walnuts/almonds from Kashmir,
·    Jackfruit from South,
·    Guavas from Allahabad,
·    Pineapples from North East India,
·    Tea from Assam,
·    Orchids from Sikkim and Meghalaya,
·    Pottery of Manipur,
·    Fishes from coastal areas.
Students may develop a Case Study on the following lines:
(i)  Research for change in price of the product. For example, apples in Himachal
Pradesh during plucking and non plucking season.
(ii) Effect on prices in the absence of effective transport system.
(iii) Effect on prices in the absence of suitable warehouse facilities.
(iv) Duties performed by the warehouses.
(v) Demand and supply situation of the product during harvesting season, prices near the place of origin and away.
Students may be motivated to find out the importance of producing and selling these products and their processed items along with the roles of Transport, Warehousing, Advertising, Banking, Insurance, Packaging, Wholesale selling, Retailing, Co-operative farming, Co-operative marketing etc.
The teacher may develop the points for other projects on similar lines for students to
work on.
The teacher may assign this project as ‘group’ project and may give different products to
different groups. It could conclude in the form of an exhibition.
III. Project Three: Aids to Trade
Taking any one AID TO TRADE, for example Insurance and gathering information on
following aspects
1. History of Insurance Lloyd’s contribution.
2. Development of regulatory Mechanism.
3. Insurance Companies in India
4. Principles of Insurance.
5. Types of Insurance. Importance of insurance to the businessmen.
6. Benefits of crop, orchards, animal and poultry insurance to the farmers.
7. Terminologies used (premium, face value, market value, maturity value, surrender value) and their meanings.
8. Anecdotes and interesting cases of insurance. Reference of films depicting people committing fraudulent acts with insurance companies.
9. Careers in Insurance.
Teachers to develop such aspects for other aids to trade.
IV. Project Four: Import /Export Procedure
Any one from the following
1. Import /Export procedure
The students should identify a product of their city/country which is imported /exported.
They are required to find the details of the actual import/export procedure. They may take help from the Chambers of Commerce, Banker, existing Importers/Exporters, etc.
They should find details of the procedure and link it with their Text knowledge.
The specimens of documents collected should be pasted in the Project file with brief
description of each. They may also visit railway godowns/dockyards/ transport agencies and may collect pictures of the same.
Presentation and submission of project report.
At the end of the stipulated term, each student will prepare and submit his/her project
report.
Following essentials are required to be fulfilled for its preparation and submission.
1. The total project will be in a file format, consisting of the recordings of the value of shares and the graphs.
2. The project will be handwritten.
3. The project will be presented in a neat folder.
4. The project report will be developed in the following sequence-
Cover page should project the title, student information, school and year. List of contents.
Acknowledgements and preface (acknowledging the institution, the news papers read, T.V. channels viewed, places visited and persons who have helped).
Introduction.
Topic with suitable heading.
Planning and activities done during the project, if any. Observations and findings while conducting the project. News paper clippings to reflect the changes of share prices.
Conclusions (summarised suggestions or findings, future scope of study). Appendix (if needed).
Teachers report.
Teachers will initial preface page.
At the completion of the evaluation of the project, it will be punched in the centre so that the report cannot be reused but is available for reference only.
The projects will be returned after evaluation. The school may keep the best projects.
V. Project Five: A visit to any State Emporium (other than your school state).
The purpose of this project is that it leads to –
Development of deeper understanding of the diversity of products in the states like
Assam, Tripura, Nagaland, Mizoram, Manipur, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Kerala, Chhatisgarh, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and other states of the country.
Sensitization and orientation of students about other states, their trade, business and commerce,
Understanding the cultural and socio-economic aspects of the state by the students,
Developing the understanding of role of folk art, artisanship and craftsmanship of the
state in its growth and economic development
Understanding the role of gifts of nature and natural produce in the development of trade, business and commerce
Understanding the role of vocational skills and abilities on the livelihood of artisans/ craftsman
Understanding of entrepreneurial skills and abilities of the artisans/craftsman Understanding of the unemployment problem of the state and role of art and craft of
the state in generating employment opportunities Value aspect –
Sense  of  gratitude  –  by  appreciating  the  contributions  made  by  others  in  the betterment of our lives
Appreciating the dignity of work
Sensitivity towards social, cultural, ethnical and religious differences Benefits of social harmony and peace
Understanding and appreciating the unity in diversity in India
Appreciating differences in race, skin colour, languages, religion, habits, festivals, clothing coexistence
Presentation and Submission of Project Report
At the end of the stipulated term, each student will prepare and submit his/her project
report.
Following essentials are required to be fulfilled for its preparation and submission.
1. Nature of the business organisation (emporium)
2. Determinants for location of the concerned emporium
3. Is the space rented or owned
4. Nature of the goods dealt in
5. Sources of merchandise of the emporium
6.  Role  of  co-operative  societies  in  the  manufacturing  and/or  marketing  of  the merchandise
7. Role of gifts of nature or natural produce in the development of goods/merchandise
8. Types of buyers and sellers
9.  Modes  of  goods  dispersed, minimum quantity sold  and  type  of  carrying  bag  or package used for delivery of the products sold
10. Factors determining the pricing at the emporium
11. Comparison between the prices of goods available at the emporium with the prices in the open market. Also highlight probable causes of variations if any.
12. Kind of raw material available naturally, used in making the products
13. The technique used in making the products i.e., hand made or machine made
14. Has the child labour being used in making the products sold at the emporium
15. Are the products eco-friendly, in terms of manufacturing, disposal and packing
16. Seasonal factors if any affecting the business of the emporium
17. Weekly/ Monthly non-working days
18. Mode of billing and payments – Cash, Credit Card/ Debit Card, Swipe facility.
19. Does the emporium sell its merchandise in installment / deferred payment basis
20. Do they provide home delivery and after sales services.
21. Different types of promotional campaigns / schemes
22. Assistance by Sales Personnel
23. Export orientation of this emporium and procedure used
24. Policies related to damaged/ returned goods
25. Any government facility available to the emporium
26. Warehousing facilities available / availed
27. Impact of tourism on the business of emporium
28. Additional facility offered to customers
29. Any Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) assumed by the emporium
30. Contribution made by the emporium to its locality
ASSESSMENT
The marks will be allocated on the following heads.
1Initiative, cooperativeness and participation1 Mark
2Creativity in presentation1 Mark
3Content, observation and research work2 Marks
4Analysis of situations2 Marks
5Viva4 Marks
Total10 Marks
CLASS XII : GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS
Students are supposed to select one unit out of four and are required to make only
ONE project from the selected unit. (Consist of one project of 20 marks)
1.  Help students to select any ONE Topic for the entire year.
2.  The topic should be assigned after discussion with the students in the class and should then be discussed at every stage of the submission of the project.
The teacher should play the role of a facilitator and should closely supervise the
process of project completion. The teachers must ensure that the project work assigned to the students whether individually or in group are discussed at different stages right from assignment to drafts review and finalization. Students should be facilitated in terms of providing relevant materials or suggesting websites, or obtaining required permissions from business houses, malls etc for their project. The periods assigned to the Project Work should be suitably spaced throughout the academic session. The teachers MUST ensure that the student actually go through the rigors and enjoy the process of doing the project rather than depending on any readymade material available outside.
3.  The students must make a presentation of the project before the class.
4. The teachers must ensure that the student’s self-esteem and creativity is enhanced and both the teacher and the student enjoy this process.
5. The teachers should feel pride in the fact that they have explored the different dimensions of the project in an innovative way and their students have put in genuine work.
I. Project One: Elements of Business Environment
The teachers should help the students in selecting any one element of the following:
1. Changes witnessed over the last few years on mode of packaging and its economic
impact. The teacher may guide the students to identify the following changes:
a) The changes in transportation of fruits and vegetables such as cardboard crates being
used in place of wooden crates, etc. Reasons for above changes.
b) Milk being supplied in glass bottles, later in plastic bags and now in tetra-pack and through vending machines.
c) Plastic furniture [doors and stools] gaining preference over wooden furniture.
d) The origin of cardboard and the various stages of changes and growth.
e) Brown paper bags packing to recycled paper bags to plastic bags and cloth bags.
f) Re use of packaging [bottles, jars and tins] to attract customers for their products.
g) The concept of pyramid packaging for milk.
h) Cost being borne by the consumer/manufacturer.
i) Packaging used as means of advertisements.
2. The reasons behind changes in the following:
Coca – Cola and Fanta in the seventies to Thums up and Campa Cola in the eighties to Pepsi and Coke in nineties.
The teacher may guide the students to the times when India sold Coca Cola and Fanta which were being manufactured in India by the foreign companies.
The students may be asked to enquire about
a) Reasons of stopping the manufacturing of the above mentioned drinks in India THEN.
b) The introduction of Thums up and Campa cola range.
c) Re entry of Coke and introduction of Pepsi in the Indian market.
d) Factors responsible for the change.
e) Other linkages with the above.
f) Leading brands and the company having the highest market share.
g) Different local brands venturing in the Indian market.
h) The rating of the above brands in the market.
i) The survival and reasons of failure in competition with the international brands.
j) Other observations made by the students
The teacher may develop the following on the above lines
3. Changing role of the women in the past 25 years relating to joint families, nuclear
families, women as a bread earner of the family, changes in the requirement trend of mixers, washing machines, micro wave and standard of living.
4. The changes in the pattern of import and export of different Products.
5. The trend in the changing interest rates and their effect on savings.
6. A study on child labour laws, its implementation and consequences.
7. The state of ‘anti plastic campaign,’ the law, its effects and implementation.
8. The laws of mining /setting up of industries, rules and regulations, licences required for running that business.
9. Social factors affecting acceptance and rejection of an identified product. (Dish washer, Atta maker, etc)
10. What has the effect of change in environment on the types of goods and services? The students can take examples like:
a) Washing machines, micro waves, mixers and grinder.
b) Need for crèche, day care centre for young and old.
c) Ready to eat food, eating food outside, and tiffin centres.
11. Change in the man-machine ratio with technological advances resulting in change of cost structure.
12. Effect of changes in technological environment on the behaviour of employee.
II. Project Two: Principles of Management
The students are required to visit any one of the following:
1. A departmental store.
2. An Industrial unit.
3. A fast food outlet.
4. Any other organisation approved by the teacher.
They are required to observe the application of the general Principles of management advocated by Fayol.
Fayol’s principles
1. Division of work.
2. Unity of command.
3. Unity of direction.
4. Scalar chain
5. Espirit de corps
6. Fair remuneration to all.
7. Order.
8. Equity.
9. Discipline
10. Subordination of individual interest to general interest.
11. Initiative.
12. Centralisation and decentralisation.
13. Stability of tenure.
OR
They may enquire into the application of scientific management techniques by F.W.
Taylor in the unit visited.
Scientific techniques of management.
1. Functional foremanship.
2. Standardisation and simplification of work.
3. Method study.
4. Motion Study.
5. Time Study.
6. Fatigue Study
7. Differential piece rate plan.
Tips to teacher
(i) The teacher may organize this visit.
(ii) The teacher should facilitate the students to identify any unit of their choice and guide them to identify the principles that are being followed.
(iii) Similarly they should guide the students to identify the techniques of scientific management implemented in the organisation.
(iv) It may be done as a group activity.
(v) The observations could be on the basis of
The different stages of division of work resulting to specialisation.
Following instructions and accountability of subordinates to higher authorities. Visibility of order and equity in the unit.
Balance of authority and responsibility.
Communication levels and pattern in the organisation.
Methods and techniques followed by the organisation for unity of direction and coordination amongst all.
Methods of wage payments followed.The arrangements of fatigue study. Derivation of time study.
Derivation and advantages of method study. Organisational chart of functional foremanship.
Any other identified in the organisation
vi. It is advised that students should be motivated to pick up different areas of visit. As presentations of different areas in the class would help in better understanding to the other students.
vii. The students may be encouraged to develop worksheets. Teachers should help students to prepare observation tools to be used for undertaking the project.
Examples; worksheets, questionnaire, interviews and organisational chart etc.
III. Project Three: Stock Exchange
The purpose of this project is to teach school students the values of investing and utilising the stock market. This project also teaches important lessons about the economy, mathematics and financial responsibility.
The basis of this project is to learn about the stock market while investing a specified
amount of fake money in certain stocks. Students then study the results and buy and sell as they see fit.
This project will also guide the students and provide them with the supplies necessary to
successfully monitor stock market trends and will teach students how to calculate profit and loss on stock.
The project work will enable the students to:
understand the topics like sources of business finance and capital market understand the concepts used in stock exchange
inculcate the habit of watching business channels, reading business journals/newspapers and seeking information from their elders.
The students are expected to:
a) Develop a brief report on History of Stock Exchanges in India. (your country)
b) Prepare a list of at least 25 companies listed on a Stock Exchange.
c) To make an imaginary portfolio totalling a sum of Rs. 50,000 equally in any of the 5 companies of their choice listed above over a period of twenty working days.
The students may be required to report the prices of the stocks on daily basis and
present it diagrammatically on the graph paper.
They will understand the weekly holidays and the holidays under the Negotiable Instruments Act.
They will also come across with terms like closing prices, opening prices, etc.
During this period of recording students are supposed to distinctively record the daily and starting and closing prices of the week other days under the negotiable instrument act so that they acquire knowledge about closing and opening prices.
The students may conclude by identifying the causes in the fluctuations of
prices. Normally it would be related to the front page news of the a business journal, for example,
Change of seasons. Festivals.
Spread of epidemic. Strikes and accidents
Natural and human disasters. Political environment.
Lack of faith in the government policies.
Impact of changes in government policies for specific industry. International events.
Contract and treaties at the international scene. Relations with the neighbouring countries.
Crisis in developed countries, etc.
The students are expected to find the value of their investments and accordingly
rearrange their portfolio. The project work should cover the following aspects;
1. Graphical presentation of the share prices of different companies on different dates.
2. Change in market value of shares due to change of seasons, festivals, natural and human disasters.
3. Change in market value of shares due to change in political environment/ policies of various countries/crisis in developed countries or any other reasons
4. Identify the top ten companies out of the 25 selected on the basis of their market value of shares.
It does not matter if they have made profits or losses.
IV. Project Four: Marketing
1.  Adhesives
2.  Air conditioners
3.  Baby diapers
4.  Bathing Soap
5.  Bathroom cleaner
6.  Bike
7.  Blanket
8.  Body Spray
9.  Bread
10. Breakfast cereal
11. Butter
12. Camera
13. Car
14. Cheese spreads
15. Chocolate
16. Coffee
17. Cosmetology product
18. Crayons
19. Crockery
20. Cutlery
21. Cycle
22. DTH
23. Eraser
24. e-wash
25. Fairness cream
26. Fans
27. Fruit candy
28. Furniture
29. Hair Dye
30. Hair Oil
31. Infant dress
32. Inverter
33. Jams
34. Jeans
35. Jewellery
36. Kurti
37. Ladies bag
38. Ladies footwear
39. Learning Toys
40. Lipstick
41. Microwave oven
42. Mixers
43. Mobile
44. Moisturizer
45. Music player
46. Nail polish
47. Newspaper
48. Noodles
49. Pen
50. Pen drive
51. Pencil
52. Pickles
53. Razor
54. Ready Soups
55. Refrigerator
56. RO system
57. Roasted snacks
58. Salt
59. Sarees
60. Sauces/ Ketchup
61. Shampoo
62. Shaving cream
63. Shoe polish
64. Shoes
65. Squashes
66. Suitcase/ airbag
67. Sunglasses
68. Tea
69. Tiffin Wallah
70. Toothpaste
71. Wallet
72. Washing detergent
73. Washing machine
74. Washing powder
75. Water bottle
76. Water storage tank
77. Wipes
Any more as suggested by the teacher.
The  teacher  must  ensure  that  the  identified  product  should  not  be  items  whose
consumption/use   is   discouraged   by   the   society   and   government   like   alcohol products/pan masala and tobacco products, etc.
Identify   one   product/service   from   the   above   which   the   students   may   like   to
manufacture/provide [pre-assumption].
Now  the  students  are  required  to  make  a  project  on  the  identified  product/service
keeping in mind the following:
1. Why have they selected this product/service?
2. Find out ‘5’ competitive brands that exist in the market.
3. What permission and licences would be required to make the product?
4. What are your competitors Unique Selling Proposition.[U.S.P.]?
5. Does your product have any range give details?
6. What is the name of your product?
7. Enlist its features.
8. Draw the ‘Label’ of your product.
9. Draw a logo for your product.
10. Draft a tag line.
11. What is the selling price of your competitor’s product?
(i) Selling price to consumer
(ii) Selling price to retailer
(iii) Selling price to wholesaler
What is the profit margin in percentage to the
Manufacturer. Wholesaler. Retailer.
12. How will your product be packaged?
13. Which channel of distribution are you going to use? Give reasons for selection?
14. Decisions related to warehousing, state reasons.
15. What is going to be your selling price?
(i) To consumer
(ii) To retailer
(iii) To wholesaler
16. List 5 ways of promoting your product.
17. Any schemes for
(i) The wholesaler
(ii) The retailer
(iii) The consumer
18. What is going to be your ‘U.S.P?
19. What means of transport you will use and why?
20. Draft a social message for your label.
21. What cost effective techniques will you follow for your product.
22. What cost effective techniques will you follow for your promotion plan.
At this stage the students will realise the importance of the concept of marketing mix and the necessary decision regarding the four P’s of marketing.
Product Place Price Promotion
On the basis of the work done by the students the project report should include the
following:
1. Type of product /service identified and the (consumer/industries) process involve there in.
2. Brand name and the product.
3. Range of the product.
4. Identification mark or logo.
5. Tagline.
6. Labeling and packaging.
7. Price of the product and basis of price fixation.
8. Selected channels of distribution and reasons thereof.
9. Decisions related to transportation and warehousing. State reasons.
10.  Promotional  techniques  used  and  starting  reasons  for  deciding  the  particular technique.
11. Grading and standardization.
Presentation and Submission of Project Report
At the end of the stipulated term, each student will prepare and submit his/her project report.
Following essentials are required to be fulfilled for its preparation and submission.
1. The total length of the project will be of 25 to 30 pages.
2. The project should be handwritten.
3. The project should be presented in a neat folder.
4. The project report should be developed in the following sequence-
Cover page should include the title of the Project, student information, school and year.
List of contents.
Acknowledgements and preface (acknowledging  the institution, the places visited and the persons who have helped).
Introduction.
Topic with suitable heading.
Planning and activities done during the project, if any. Observations and findings of the visit.
Conclusions (summarized suggestions or findings, future scope of study). Photographs (if any).
Appendix
Teacher’s observation. Signatures of the teachers.
At the completion of the evaluation of the project, it should be punched in the centre so that the report may not be reused but is available for reference only.
The project will be returned after evaluation. The school may keep the best projects.
Allocation of Marks = 20 Marks
ASSESSMENT
The marks will be allocated under the following heads:
1Initiative, cooperativeness and participation2 Mark
2Creativity in presentation2 Mark
3Content, observation and research work4 Marks
4Analysis of situations4 Marks
5Viva8 Marks
Total20 Marks
BUSINESS STUDIESQUESTION PAPER DESIGN YEAR 2018-19
Code No. 054
CLASS XII
Time: 3 hrsMax. Marks – 80
S NTypology of QuestionsLearning Outcomes
& Testing Skills
Very Short Answer (VSA) (1
Mark)
Short Answ er -I (SA-I) (3
Mark s)
Short Answer -II (SA-II) (4
Marks)
Long Answer (LA) (5 Marks)Essay Type (6 Marks )Total Marks%
Wei ghta ge
1.Remembering- (Knowledge based Simple recall questions, to know specific facts, terms, concepts, principles, or theories; Identify, define, or recite, information)·       Reasonin g
·       Analytica l Skills
·       Critical Skills
21111417%
2.Understanding- (Comprehension –to be familiar with meaning and to understand conceptually, interpret, compare, contrast, explain, paraphrase, or interpret information)22111823%
3.Application- (Use abstract information in concrete situation, to apply knowledge to new situations; Use given content to interpret a situation, provide an example, or solve a problem)211112025%
4.High Order Thinking Skills- (Analysis & SynthesisClassify, compare, contrast, or differentiate between different pieces of information; Organize and/or integrate unique pieces of information from a variety of sources)21211924%
5.Evaluation- (Appraise, judge, and/or justify the value or worth of a decision or outcome, or to predict outcomes based on values)110911%
TOTAL – 1 project8×1=85×3=6×4= 243×5= 153×6= 1880(25)100
(20 Marks)15project%
(20)
Estimated Time (in minutes)8 min27
min
30 min40 min60 min165 min+15 min for revision

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