Secondary School Certificate Examination (IX-X) Mathematics 2018-19

CBSE Curriculum for Secondary School Certificate Examination (IX-X) Mathematics 2018-19

MATHEMATICS (IX-X) CBSE
(CODE NO. 041)
Session 2018-19
The Syllabus  in  the  subject  of  Mathematics  has  undergone  changes  from  time  to  time  in
accordance with growth of the subject and emerging needs of the society. The present revised syllabus has been designed in accordance with National Curriculum Framework
2005 and as per guidelines given in the Focus Group on Teaching of Mathematics which is to meet the emerging needs of all categories of students. For motivating the teacher to relate the topics to real life problems and other subject areas, greater emphasis has been laid on applications of various concepts.
The curriculum at Secondary stage primarily aims at enhancing the capacity of students to employ Mathematics in solving day-to-day life problems and studying the subject as a separate discipline. It is expected that students should acquire the ability  to solve problems  using algebraic methods and apply the knowledge of simple trigonometry to solve problems of height and distances. Carrying out experiments with numbers and forms of geometry, framing hypothesis and verifying these with further observations form inherent part of Mathematics learning at this stage. The proposed curriculum includes the study of number system, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, mensuration, statistics, graphs and coordinate geometry, etc.
The teaching of Mathematics should be imparted through activities which may involve the use of concrete materials, models, patterns, charts, pictures, posters, games, puzzles  and experiments.
Objectives
The broad objectives of teaching of Mathematics at secondary stage are to help the learners to:
·         consolidate the Mathematical knowledge and skills acquired at the upper primary stage;
·         acquire knowledge and understanding, particularly by way of motivation and visualization, of basic concepts, terms, principles and symbols and underlying processes and skills;
·         develop mastery of basic algebraic skills;
·         develop drawing skills;
·         feel the flow of reason while proving a result or solving a problem;
·         apply the knowledge and skills acquired to solve problems and wherever possible, by more than one method;
·         to develop ability to think, analyze and articulate logically;
· to develop awareness of the need for national integration, protection of environment, observance of small family norms, removal of social barriers, elimination of gender biases;
·         to develop necessary skills to work with modern technological devices and mathematical softwares.
·         to develop interest in mathematics as a problem-solving tool in various fields for its beautiful structures and patterns, etc.
·         to develop reverence and respect towards great Mathematicians for their contributions to the field of Mathematics;
·         to develop interest in the subject by participating in related competitions;
·         to acquaint students with different aspects of Mathematics used in daily life;
·         to develop an interest in students to study Mathematics as a discipline.
CBSE COURSE STRUCTURE CLASS -IX
UnitsUnit NameMarks
INUMBER SYSTEMS08
IIALGEBRA17
IIICOORDINATE GEOMETRY04
IVGEOMETRY28
VMENSURATION13
VISTATISTICS & PROBABILITY10
Total80
CBSE UNIT I: NUMBER SYSTEMS
1.     REAL NUMBERS                                                                                 (18 Periods)
1. Review of representation of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers on the number line. Representation of terminating / non-terminating recurring decimals on the number line through successive magnification. Rational numbers as recurring/ terminating decimals.
Operations on real numbers.
2. Examples of non-recurring/non-terminating decimals. Existence of non-rational numbers
(irrational  numbers)  such  as  √  ,  √     and  their  representation  on  the  number  line. Explaining that every real number is represented by a unique point on the number line
and conversely, viz. every point on the number line represents a unique real number.
3. Definition of nth root of a real number.
4. Existence of √     for a given positive real number x and its representation on the number line with geometric proof.
5. Rationalization (with precise meaning) of real numbers of the type
    √
and
√      √
(and their combinations) where x and y are natural number and a and
b are integers.
6. Recall of laws of exponents with integral powers. Rational exponents with positive real bases (to be done by particular cases, allowing learner to arrive at the general laws.)
UNIT II: ALGEBRA
1.     POLYNOMIALS                                                                                   (23) Periods
Definition of a polynomial in one variable, with examples and counter examples. Coefficients of a polynomial, terms of a polynomial and zero polynomial. Degree of a polynomial. Constant, linear, quadratic and cubic polynomials. Monomials, binomials, trinomials. Factors and multiples. Zeros of a polynomial. Motivate and State the Remainder Theorem with examples. Statement and proof of the Factor Theorem. Factorization of ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 where a, b and c are real numbers, and of cubic polynomials using the Factor Theorem.
Recall of algebraic expressions and identities. Verification of identities:
(                  )               +                            (          )                                       (          )
             (           ) (
                           (                  ) (                                                         )
and their use in factorization of polynomials.
2.  LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES                                               (14) Periods
Recall of linear equations in one variable. Introduction to the equation in two variables.
Focus on linear equations of the type ax+by+c=0. Prove that a linear equation in two variables has infinitely many solutions and justify their being written as ordered pairs of real numbers, plotting them and showing that they lie on a line. Graph of linear equations in two variables. Examples, problems from real life, including problems on Ratio and Proportion and with algebraic and graphical solutions being done simultaneously.
UNIT III: COORDINATE GEOMETRY
COORDINATE GEOMETRY                                                                 (6) Periods
The Cartesian plane, coordinates of a point, names and terms associated with the coordinate plane, notations, plotting points in the plane.
UNIT IV: GEOMETRY
1.  INTRODUCTION TO EUCLID’S GEOMETRY(6) Periods
History – Geometry in India and Euclid’s geometry. Euclid’s method of formalizing observed
phenomenon into rigorous Mathematics with definitions, common/obvious notions, axioms/postulates and theorems. The five postulates of Euclid. Equivalent versions of the fifth postulate. Showing the relationship between axiom and theorem, for example:
(Axiom) 1. Given two distinct points, there exists one and only one line through them.
(Theorem) 2. (Prove) Two distinct lines cannot have more than one point in common.
2.     LINES AND ANGLES                                                                           (13) Periods
1. (Motivate) If a ray stands on a line, then the sum of the two adjacent angles so formed is 180O and the converse.
2. (Prove) If two lines intersect, vertically opposite angles are equal.
3. (Motivate) Results on corresponding angles, alternate angles, interior angles when a transversal intersects two parallel lines.
4. (Motivate) Lines which are parallel to a given line are parallel.
5. (Prove) The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180O.
6. (Motivate) If a side of a triangle is produced, the exterior angle so formed is equal to the sum of the two interior opposite angles.
3.      TRIANGLES                                                                                      (20) Periods
1. (Motivate) Two triangles are congruent if any two sides and the included angle of one triangle is equal to any two sides and the included angle of the other triangle (SAS Congruence).
2. (Prove) Two triangles are congruent if any two angles and the included side of one triangle is equal to any two angles and the included side of the other triangle (ASA Congruence).
3. (Motivate) Two triangles are congruent if the three sides of one triangle are equal to three sides of the other triangle (SSS Congruence).
4. (Motivate) Two right triangles are congruent if the hypotenuse and a side of one triangle are equal (respectively) to the hypotenuse and a side of the other triangle. (RHS Congruence)
5. (Prove) The angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal.
6. (Motivate) The sides opposite to equal angles of a triangle are equal.
7. (Motivate) Triangle inequalities and relation between ‘angle and facing side’ inequalities in triangles.
4.     QUADRILATERALS                                                                             (10) Periods
1. (Prove) The diagonal divides a parallelogram into two congruent triangles.
2. (Motivate) In a parallelogram opposite sides are equal, and conversely.
3. (Motivate) In a parallelogram opposite angles are equal, and conversely.
4. (Motivate) A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if a pair of its opposite sides is parallel and equal.
5. (Motivate) In a parallelogram, the diagonals bisect each other and conversely.
6. (Motivate) In a triangle, the line segment joining the mid points of any two sides is parallel to the third side and in half of it and (motivate) its converse.
5. AREA                                                                                                 (7) Periods
Review concept of area, recall area of a rectangle.
1. (Prove) Parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels have the same area.
2. (Motivate) Triangles on the same (or equal base) base and between the same parallels are equal in area.
6.     CIRCLES                                                                                            (15) Periods
Through examples, arrive at definition of circle and related concepts-radius, circumference, diameter, chord, arc, secant, sector, segment, subtended angle.
1. (Prove) Equal chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the center and (motivate) its converse.
2. (Motivate) The perpendicular from the center of a circle to a chord bisects the chord and conversely, the line drawn through the center of a circle to bisect a chord is perpendicular to the chord.
3. (Motivate) There is one and only one circle passing through three given non-collinear points.
4. (Motivate) Equal chords of a circle (or of congruent circles) are equidistant from the center (or their respective centers) and conversely.
5. (Prove) The angle subtended by an arc at the center is double the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle.
6. (Motivate) Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal.
7. (Motivate) If a line segment joining two points subtends equal angle at two other points lying on the same side of the line containing the segment, the four points lie on a circle.
8. (Motivate) The sum of either of the pair of the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is
180° and its converse.
7.     CONSTRUCTIONS                                                                                (10) Periods
1. Construction of bisectors of line segments and angles of measure 60o, 90o, 45o   etc., equilateral triangles.
2. Construction of a triangle given its base, sum/difference of the other two sides and one base angle.
3. Construction of a triangle of given perimeter and base angles.
UNIT V: MENSURATION
1.      AREAS                                                                                                (4) Periods
Area of a triangle using Heron’s formula (without proof) and its application in finding the
area of a quadrilateral.
2.     SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES                                                          (12) Periods
Surface areas and volumes of cubes, cuboids, spheres (including hemispheres) and right
circular cylinders/cones.
UNIT VI: STATISTICS & PROBABILITY
1.      STATISTICS                                                                                       (13) Periods
Introduction to Statistics: Collection of data, presentation of data — tabular form, ungrouped / grouped, bar graphs, histograms (with varying  base  lengths), frequency polygons. Mean, median and mode of ungrouped data.
2.    PROBABILITY                                                                                       (9) Periods
History, Repeated experiments and observed frequency approach to probability.
Focus is on empirical probability. (A large amount of time to be devoted to group and to individual activities to motivate the concept; the experiments to be drawn from real – life situations, and from examples used in the chapter on statistics).
QUESTIONS PAPER DESIGN 2018–19
CLASS–IX
Mathematics (Code No. 041)                                                                                             Marks: 80
S.
No.
Typology of QuestionsVery Short Answer (VSA) (1
Mark)
Short Answer-I (SA) (2
Marks)
Short Answer- II (SA) (3
Marks)
Long Answer (LA) (4
Marks)
Total Marks%
Weightage (approx.)
1Remembering-(Knowledge based- Simple recall questions, to know specific facts, terms, concepts, principles or theories; Identify, define, or recite, information)22222025%
2Understanding- (Comprehension- to be familiar with meaning and to understand conceptually, interpret, compare, contrast, explain, paraphrase, or interpret information)21142329%
3Application (Use abstract information in concrete situation, to apply knowledge to new situation; Use given content to interpret a situation, provide an example, or solve a problem)22311924%
4Higher Order Thinking Skills (Analysis & Synthesis- Classify, compare, contrast, or differentiate between different pieces of information; Organize and /or integrate unique pieces of information from variety of sources )141417%
5Evaluation ( Judge, and/or justify the value or worth of a decision or outcome, or to predict outcomes based on values)145%
Total6×1=66×2=1210×3=308×4=3280100%
INTERNAL ASSESSMENT                                                                         20 Marks
·      Periodical Test                                                                                          10 Marks
·      Note Book Submission                                                                                05 Marks
·       Lab Practical (Lab activities to be done from the prescribed books)            05 Marks
COURSE STRUCTURE CLASS -X
UnitsUnit NameMarks
INUMBER SYSTEMS06
IIALGEBRA20
IIICOORDINATE GEOMETRY06
IVGEOMETRY15
VTRIGONOMETRY12
VIMENSURATION10
VIISTATISTICS & PROBABILTY11
Total80
UNIT I: NUMBER SYSTEMS
1. REAL NUMBER                                                                                      (15) Periods
Euclid’s division lemma, Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic – statements after reviewing work  done  earlier  and  after  illustrating  and  motivating  through  examples,  Proofs  of
irrationality  of  √      √       √   Decimal  representation  of  rational  numbers  in  terms  of
terminating/non-terminating recurring decimals.
UNIT II: ALGEBRA
1.     POLYNOMIALS                                                                                     (7) Periods
Zeros of a polynomial. Relationship between zeros and coefficients of quadratic polynomials. Statement and simple problems on division algorithm for polynomials with real coefficients.
2.     PAIR OF LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES                               (15) Periods Pair   of   linear   equations    in   two   variables    and   graphical    method    of   their solution, consistency/inconsistency.
Algebraic conditions for number of solutions. Solution of a pair of linear equations in two variables algebraically – by substitution, by elimination and by cross multiplication method. Simple situational problems. Simple problems on equations reducible to linear equations.
3.     QUADRATIC EQUATIONS                                                                     (15) Periods
Standard form of a quadratic equation ax2  + bx + c = 0, (a ≠ 0). Solutions of quadratic
equations (only real roots) by factorization, by completing the square and by using quadratic formula. Relationship between discriminant and nature of roots.
Situational problems based on quadratic equations related to day to day activities to be
incorporated.
4.     ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS                                                     (8) Periods Motivation for studying Arithmetic Progression Derivation of the nth term and sum of the first n terms of A.P. and their application in solving daily life problems.
UNIT III: COORDINATE GEOMETRY
1.     LINES (In two-dimensions)                                                                 (14) Periods
Review: Concepts of coordinate geometry, graphs of linear equations. Distance formula.
Section formula (internal division). Area of a triangle.
UNIT IV: GEOMETRY
1.     TRIANGLES                                                                                         (15) Periods
Definitions, examples, counter examples of similar triangles.
1. (Prove) If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect the other two sides in distinct points, the other two sides are divided in the same ratio.
2. (Motivate) If a line divides two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, the line is parallel to the third side.
3. (Motivate) If in two triangles, the corresponding angles are equal, their corresponding sides are proportional and the triangles are similar.
4. (Motivate) If the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional, their corresponding angles are equal and the two triangles are similar.
5. (Motivate) If one angle of a triangle is equal to one angle of another triangle and the sides including these angles are proportional, the two triangles are similar.
6. (Motivate) If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle of a right triangle to the hypotenuse, the triangles on each side of the perpendicular are similar to the whole triangle and to each other.
7. (Prove) The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares of their corresponding sides.
8. (Prove) In a right triangle, the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.
9. (Prove) In a triangle, if the square on one side is equal to sum of the squares on the other two sides, the angles opposite to the first side is a right angle.
2.     CIRCLES                                                                                               (8) Periods
Tangent to a circle at, point of contact
1.  (Prove) The tangent at any point of a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the
point of contact.
2.  (Prove) The lengths of tangents drawn from an external point to a circle are equal.
3.     CONSTRUCTIONS                                                                                  (8) Periods
1.  Division of a line segment in a given ratio (internally).
2.  Tangents to a circle from a point outside it.
3.  Construction of a triangle similar to a given triangle.
UNIT V: TRIGONOMETRY
1.     INTRODUCTION TO TRIGONOMETRY                                                   (10) Periods Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right-angled triangle. Proof of their existence (well defined); motivate the ratios whichever are defined at 0o     and 90o. Values (with proofs) of the trigonometric ratios of 300, 450 and 600. Relationships between the ratios.
2.     TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES                                                             (15) Periods Proof and applications of the identity sin2A + cos2A = 1. Only simple identities to be given. Trigonometric ratios of complementary angles.
3.     HEIGHTS AND DISTANCES: Angle of elevation, Angle of Depression.  (8) Periods Simple problems on heights and distances. Problems should not involve more than two right triangles. Angles of elevation / depression should be only 30°, 45°, 60°.
UNIT VI: MENSURATION
1.     AREAS RELATED TO CIRCLES                                                              (12) Periods Motivate the area of a circle; area of sectors and segments of a circle. Problems based on areas and perimeter / circumference of the above said plane figures. (In calculating area of segment of a circle, problems should be restricted to central angle of 60°, 90° and 120° only. Plane figures involving triangles, simple quadrilaterals and circle should be taken.)
2.     SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES                                                          (12) Periods
1. Surface areas and volumes of combinations of any two of the following: cubes, cuboids,
spheres, hemispheres and right circular cylinders/cones. Frustum of a cone.
2. Problems involving converting one type of metallic solid into another and other mixed
problems. (Problems with combination of not more than two different solids be taken).
UNIT VII: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY
1.STATISTICS(18) Periods
Mean, median and mode of grouped data (bimodal situation to be avoided).
Cumulative frequency graph.
2.     PROBABILITY                                                                                      (10) Periods
Classical definition of probability. Simple problems on single events (not using set
notation).
QUESTIONS PAPER DESIGN 2018–19
CLASS–X
Mathematics (Code No. 041)                                                                                             Marks: 80
S.
No.
Typology of QuestionsVery Short Answer (VSA) (1
Mark)
Short Answer-I (SA) (2
Marks)
Short Answer- II (SA) (3
Marks)
Long Answer (LA) (4
Marks)
Total Marks%
Weightage (approx.)
1Remembering-(Knowledge based- Simple recall questions, to know specific facts, terms, concepts, principles or theories; Identify, define, or recite, information)22222025%
2Understanding- (Comprehension- to be familiar with meaning and to understand conceptually, interpret, compare, contrast, explain, paraphrase, or interpret information)21142329%
3Application (Use abstract information in concrete situation, to apply knowledge to new situation; Use given content to interpret a situation, provide an example, or solve a problem)22311924%
4Higher Order Thinking Skills (Analysis & Synthesis-
Classify, compare, contrast, or differentiate between different pieces of information; Organize and
/or integrate unique pieces of information from variety of sources )
141417%
5Evaluation ( Judge, and/or justify the value or worth of a decision or outcome, or to predict outcomes based on values)145%
Total6×1=66×2=1210×3=308×4=3280100%
INTERNAL ASSESSMENT                                                                         20 Marks
·      Periodical Test                                                                                          10 Marks
·      Note Book Submission                                                                                05 Marks
·       Lab Practical (Lab activities to be done from the prescribed books)            05 Marks
PRESCRIBED BOOKS:
1.      Mathematics – Textbook for class IX – NCERT Publication
2.      Mathematics – Textbook for class X – NCERT Publication
3.      Guidelines for Mathematics Laboratory in Schools, class IX – CBSE Publication
4.      Guidelines for Mathematics Laboratory in Schools, class X – CBSE Publication
5.      Laboratory Manual – Mathematics, secondary stage – NCERT Publication
6.      Mathematics exemplar problems for class IX, NCERT publication.
7.         Mathematics exemplar problems for class X, NCERT publication.

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