Sangham Age in Indian History

Sangham Age in Indian History:

  • First five centuries of the Christian Era are commonly known as Sangham Age.
  • Sangham was an Assembly of literature held at Madhurai.
  • References to the Sangham Age can be found in the inscriptions of Ashoka, and Kharavela of Kalinga and in the Indica of Megastenese.
  • The literature of the Sangham Age was written mostly in the form of Poetry.
  • In the Sangham Age, the most common form of government was hereditary monarchy. The village was the fundamental unit of administration.
  • Small village Assemblies during the Sangham Age were known as Arai.
  • Tradition refers to three sangham lasting for 9,900 years.
  • Language of the Sangham literature was Tamil
  • People of the Sangham Age mainly worshiped ‘Murugan’.
  • The greatest work of the Tamil literature of the Sangham Age is Tholkappium written by Tholkappiyar.
  • Tholkappium is considered as the earliest surviving Tamil literary work. It is a book on Tamil grammar.
  • The Capital of the Pandyas was at Madhurai.
  • Uraiyur was the capital of Cholas, known for cotton trade.
  • Vanchi was the capital of Cheras.
  • Silappadigaram, Manimegalai and Jeevakachintamani are the three epics of Sangham literature.
  • Korkai was the main seaport of the Pandyas.
  • Megastanese described Pandya Kingdom as ‘Pearl’ as it was ruled by women.
  • Kaveripumpatnam was the main sea port of the Cholas.
  • Silappatigaram as written by Ilango Adikal. It describes the love story of Kovalan and Kannaki
  • Nedujezhian is the Pandyan king mentioned in Silapadigaram.
  • Satanar wrote ‘Manimekhalai’ which is also an epic and tells about the story of the daughter of Kannaki and Kovalan.
  • Manimekhalai gives reference about Buddhism.
  • II and XIII rock edicts of Ashoka mention about the South Indian kingdoms.
  • Karikala most prominent among early Cholas is known as the master of seven notes of music.
  • ‘Bharatam’ was a Tamil version of Mahabharata sung by Perundevanar
  • ‘Manimekhalai’ is looked upon as the Tamil Odyssey.
  • Thirukkural is known as Tamil Bible compiled by Thiruvalluvar. His statue is seen near Vivekanandappara in Kanyakumari.
  • The greatest of the Chera rulers was Senguttuvanchera also known as ‘Red Chera’.He built a temple for Kannaki.
  • The famous Chera port Muziris was a great centre of Indo-Roman Trade.
  • The largest single tax collected during the Sangha period was the land tax called Karai.
  • The founder of later Cholas was Rajaraja I The most important ruler of this dynasty was Rajendra Chola.
  • Rajendra Chola is also known as ‘Gagaikonda Chola’ He later named his capital as ‘Gangaikonda Cholapuram’.
  • RajaRaja I built ‘Brihadeswara temple’ at Tanjore.
  • Cholas were well known for their naval supremacy and efficient village administration.
  • The Utharameroor inscription tells about the local self government under the cholas
  • Thirukkural of Thiruvalluvar is the Tamil work which is known also as the fifth Veda.
  • Jivaka Chintamani the third epic of the Tamil was written by Tirukkadevar.
  • Roman king built a temple of Augustus at Muziris.