Buddhism in Indian History:
- Buddhism originated in the 6th century BC.
- Gautama Buddha the founder of Buddhism was born in Lumbini in Kapilavasthu on the border of Nepal in 563 BC.
- Buddha’s mother Mahamaya died seven days after his birth. He was brought up by his aunt Mahaprajpati Gautami, hence he got the name ‘Gautama’.
- First Buddhist nun was Gautami
- Budha’s birth place is now known as Binla.
- Budhas orginal name was Sidhartha
- Buddha belonged to the Sakhya clan of Kshatriyas.
- His father was Subhodhana.
- Buddha’s wife was Yasodhara and his son was Rahulan.
- Four sights changed his mind and initiated him to spiritual life they were death, old age, sadness and sufferings.
- He left home at the age of 29 along with his charioteer Channa and favourite horse Kandaka. This incident is known as Mahanishkramana.
- Buddha got enlightenment at Bodha Gaya, on the banks of Niranjana river in Bihar at the Age of 35.
- After enlightenment Buddha came to be known as ‘thadhagatha’. He is also known as ‘Sakhyamuni’.
- Buddha made his first sermon after enlightenment at a deer park at Saranath in Uttar Pradesh. This incident is known as ‘Dharmachakra pravarthana’.
- Buddha’s first teacher was Alara Kalama and second teacher Udraka Ramaputra.
- During his first sermon at Sarnath, Buddha described the ‘four noble truths’ and the eight fold path.
- Buddha made his sermons in Pali language and the early Buddhist texts were also written in Pali language.
- Buddha died at the age of 80 in 483 BC at Kushinagara in UP. This was known as Parinirvana. Buddha died by consuming poisoned meat or poisoned mushroom.
- Last meals of Buddha was served by a blacksmith ‘Chunda’.
- His last words were All composite things decay, strive diligently.
- Four noble truths of Buddhism are: life is full of misery, desire is the cause of misery, killing desires would kill sorrows, Desire can be killed by following the eight-told path.
- The eight fold path of Buddhism are: Right Belief, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Living, Right Effort, Righ Recollection, Right Meditation
10. Sheetal Nath
20. Munisuvrata nath
- Buddhism does not recognise the existence of God and Soul (Atman)
- Buddha accepted the traditional belief in transmigration of the soul and law of Karma.
- The ‘three jewels’of Buddhism are – Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha.
- The first Buddhist council was held in 483 BC at Sattaparni (Rajagriha) under the presidentship of Mahakashyapa and under the patronage of king Ajatasatru of Magadha..
- Vinayapitaka and Suddhapitaka were codified at the first council.
- Second Buddhist council was held in 383 BC at Vaishali under the presidentship of Sabhakami and under the patronage of king Kalashoka.
- At the second Buddhist council Buddhism was divided into two Staviravadins and Mahasankikas which later came to be known a Hinayana and Mahayana respectively.
- Third council of Buddhism was held in 250 BC at Pataliputhra under the presidentship of Mogaliputta Tissa and under the patronage of Ashoka the Great.
- Abhidhamma Pitika was codified at the third council.
- At the third council decision was also taken to send missionaries to spread Buddhism.
- The fourth Buddhist council was held in the first century AD at Kundalavana in Kashmir under the President-ship of Vasumithra and Ashvagosha and under the patronage of Kanishka.
- Clear division of Buddhism into Hinayana and Mahayana tookplace at the fourth council.
- Upagupta converted Ashoka to Buddhism.
- Ashvagosha was the first biographer of Buddha who wrote Budhacharitam in Sanskrit.
- Vasubandu is known as Second Buddha.
- Ashoka is known as the Constantine of Buddhism.
- Ashoka accepted Buddhism after the battle of Kalinga in BC 261.
- Buddhist worshipping centre is known as Pagoda
- Viharas are the Buddhist monastries.
- Vajrayana was a sect of Buddhism which believed in achieving salvation through Mantras and spells.
- ‘Jataka stories’ describe the stories related to the birth of Buddha. They are 500 in number.
- Holy book of Buddhism is Tripitika- Vinayapitika, Suddhapitika and Abhidhamapitika are collectively known as Tripitika.
- Bimbisara of Magadha was a contemporary of Buddha.
- Kanishka who worked to spread Buddhism like Ashoka is known a Second Ashoka
- Ashoka sent his son and daughter, Mahendra and Sanghamitra to SriLanka to spread Buddhism.
- Sri Buddha is known as the ‘Light of Asia’ He was named as such by Edvin Arnold.
- Edvin Arnold’s ‘Light of Asia’ was translated into Malayalam by Nalappad Narayanamenon.
- Hinayanism is wide spread in Sri Lanka.
- The Bodhi tree at Gaya was cut down by Sasanka, a Bengal ruler.
- The chief Buddhist monastery was at Nalanda, which was under the patronage of Pala kings.
- Previous Buddhas are known as ‘Bodhisatvas’.
- Milandapanho a book of Nagasena describes how Greek king Menandar accepted Buddhism.