MODULE – 1
a) Tools (Compound microscope & Electron microscope – Magnification & Resolving power) – Brief idea Technique (cell fractionation & Tracer Techniques) – brief idea. Principle & use of
b) Definition of Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic cells with example and comparison between them. c) Structural organization of eukaryotic cells with special reference to i) Nucleus ii) Mitochondria iii) Chloroplast iv) Ribosome v) Lysosome vi) Endoplasmic reticulum vii) Golgi complex viii) Centrosome ix) Cell wall & plasma membrance (Fluid Mosaic Model) & x) Ergastic substances. d) Cell function : i) Physico-Chemical Diffusion, Osmosis, Plasmolysis, water & ion-absorption. ii) Cell reproduction – Cell cycle with a brief idea of its control & regulation. Cell division – Mitosis & Meiosis (with special reference to prophase – I).
MODULE – 2
a) Photosynthesis (Major photosynthetic pigments, Dark and light reactions, basic idea of bacterial photosynthesis C3, C4 & CAM pathways). b) Basic mode of plant nutrition (only types). Basic constituents of food and their nutritional significances Vitamins – (chemical names, dietary sources and dificiency symptoms), Provitamins, Pseudovitamins and Antivitamins. Carbohydrates, Proteins and fats (classification with example) c) Enzymes – its characteristics, classification with example, Mechanism of action, Allosterism and Regulation. d) Basal metabolism and BMR, Elementary idea about metabolic pathways (glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and Kreb’s cycle. Beta oxidation of fatty acid, ketone body formation & its significance, deamination and transamination with their significances). Ornithin cycle (Flow sheet only).
MODULE – 3
a) Toxonomy & classification – Definition and importance of taxonomy, Basic concept of classification, Binomial nomenclature, species concept & role of reproductive isolation in speciation. b) Concepts of Biodiversity – Definition, Species and Ecosystem biodiversity (Elementary idea), Five kingdoms classification (only distinctive characters). Salient features of major animal phyla with common examples. Classification of Chordata (upto class) with distinctive characters only. Important Botanical gardens, Zoological parks & Museum of India. c) Population Biology – Concept of population growth (logistic and exponential) and population control. d) Spcial physiology – Mental health, Tobacco smoking and chewing, Alcoholism, Drug addiction & Global immunization.
MODULE – 4
a) Viruses and Becteria – Definition, Characterization, Classification, Size and shape, General organization & Reproduction. Structure of bacteriophage, TMV, Influenza virus & E. coli (Typical bacterium). Staining of bacteria. Impotance of both virus & bacteria. Biotechnological Application of microbes (Agricultural-Nitrogen fixing bacteria, Bio-fertilizer and Bio-pesticide, Industrial – Curd, Tanning, Brewery, Antibiotics & Vitamin – C). b) Plant breeding – Definition, Hybridization technique Emasculation. Importance of plant breeding. c) Immunology – A brief idea of Antigen and Antibody, elementary idea of inherited, acquired, humoral cell medicated immunity. Active and passive immunity.
MODULE – 5
a) Evolution – Oparin and Haldane concept on origin of life, Miller’s experiment, Evidences of evolution – Morphological, Embryological and palaentological. Modern concept of natuaral selection. Human evolution – an outline. b) Ecosystem – Its components, food chain, food web, Energy flow and food pyramids, Concepts of biosphere, Autoecology & synecology. Byogeochemical cycles with reference to Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen. c) Conservation – Its concept, Renewable & Non-renewable resources, Conservation of soil & water, Conservation of
forest & wild life. Concepts of endangered species with some examples. Red data book, Green data book. d) Environmental pollution – Air, Water, Noise and Radioactive pollution, probable control strategies, Biomagnification. Green house effect, BOD, COD, Acid rain, Ozone hole & Global warming.
MODULE – 6
a) Economically important plants – (Mention uses of edible parts only). Algae – Spirulina, Fungi – Mushroom, Bryophyta – Sphagnum, Pteridophyta – Marselia, Gymnosperm – Pinus, Monocot – Bamboo, Dicot – Jute and lemon. b) Economic zoology – Poultry (types of poultry birds, high yielding poultry birds). Sericulture (definition of silk, types of silk and silk moth, voltinism and diapause, silk gland, disease of silk worm), Apiculture (types of honey bee, composition and uses of honey). c) Medical zoology – outline idea of disease, their causative organism, mode of infection, symptoms and preventive mea- sures of i) Malaria ii) Filaria iii) Ascariasis iv) Taeniasis. Distinguishing features of Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. Control measures of mosquito. d) Pest and their management – definitiion, types (Major and Minor pest) Mammalian pest, Insect pest (Tryporyza, Leptocorisa and Hispa sp), pest control ; IPM, biological control of insect pest. Fishery – Major carp, Minor carp, Exotic carp (definition & example), common diseases and control measures of carp Gill rot, Fin rot & Dropsy.
MODULE – 7
a) Plant hormones – Sources, chemical name and functions of Auxins, Gibberallins, Cytokinins and Florigen in relation to plant life. b) Endocrine system – Definition of Endocrine gland and mixed gland sources and functions of some important hormones in human – STH, TSH, ACTH, GTH, Thyroxine, Adrenaline, Insulin, Oestrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone, Local hormone (Gastrin, Secretin & Cholecystokinin) and Neurohormone (ADH & Oxytocin). Elementary idea of hormone action (protein and steroid hormones) Prostaglandin – Definition and function. c) Growth, Metamorphosis and Ageing – phases and factors of growth, Difference between plant and animal growth, Grand period of growth. Metamorphosis -Definition. Types and role of hormones. Senescence and ageing of plants and animals and its factors. Growth of seedling and the role of gibberalic acid. d) Reproduction and developmental Biology – Human Gonads – Testis and Ovary (Histology, Hormones and their functions). Spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Structure of sperm and graffian follicle. Menstrual cycle, Fertilization, implantation. A brief idea about cleavage, morula, blastula and gastrula formation.
MODULE – 8
a) Chromosome and DNA : Chromosome structure (both physical and chemical) euchromatin and heterochromatin. DNA structure (Watson – Crick Model) DNA functions and Central Dogma with brief account of replication, transcription and translation, RNA – general organization and types, brief idea on gene and genetic code. b) Mendelism : Mendel’s monohybrid and dihybrid crosses. (citing one example from plant and one from animal) Mendel’s laws of heredity with an explanation of different contradictions due to Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles. Epistasis and Linkage (brief idea only). c) Mutation : Gene mutation and chromosomal aberration, (ref. Albinism, Down syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, Klienfelter’s syndrome).
MODULE – 9
(Life system – 1) a) Digestion : Structural organization of alimentary tract, salivary gland, liver and pancreas, main digestive juices & enzymes, digestion & absorption of Carbohydrate, Protein and Lipid. Movement of small intestine (Types only). b) Nervous system : A brief outline of the organization and basic functions of nervous system (central and peripheral). Autonomic Nervous System. Functions of six major parts of brain – Cerebral – cortex, Thalamus, Hypo thalamus, Pons, Cerebellum & Medulla oblongata. Reflex action and its properties, Reflex are neuromuscular transmission. Major sense organ (Eye & Ear) and Receptors. c) Muscle Tissue : Different types of muscles and their structures in brief. Properties of muscle – Excitability, Contractility. All or none law, Refractory period, Rigormortis, Important muscles of hand and leg.
MODULE – 10
(Life system – 2) a) Circulation : Composition and functions of blood. Blood coagulation (Process in brief). Anti Coagulant. Blood groups – ABC system and Rh factor. Anatomy of the heart – Junctional tissues of the heart, origin and propagation of cardiac impulse. Histological structure of Arteries. / Veins and Capillaries. Blood pressure, Cardiac cycle and Cardiac output. Mechanism of breathing. Definition of Tidal volume, Total lung capacity, Residual volume, Vital capacity, Expiratory and inspiratory Reserve volume, Dead space. Transport of O2 and CO2 through blood. b) Excretion : Definition of Excretion. Excretory products of animal (general) Human kidney and its unit – Structure and function of both. Ultra filtration reabsorption, Hypertonic urine formation Normal and Abnormal constituents of urine. Accessory excrertory organs – Skin, Liver, Salivary glands.