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RaeBareli District of Uttar Pradesh at a Glance

About RaeBareli District :

The district of Raebareli, which was created by the British in 1858, is named after its headquarters town. Tradition has it that the town was founded by the Bhars and was known as Bharauli or Barauli which in course of time got corrupted into Bareli. The prefix, Rae, is said to be a corruption of Rahi, a village 5km. west of the town. It is also said that the prefix, Rae, represents Rae, the common title of the Kayasths who were masters of the town for a considerable period of time.

Since about the begining of the media level period of indian history the region in the south of which the area covered by the district of Raebareli lies has been known as avadh or subhah of avadh. In the north it streched as far as the foothills of the Himmalays and in the south as far as the Ganga beyond which lay the Vatsa country. There is no doubt that the district has been civilised and settled life since very early times.

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Tourist Places :

Samaspur Bird Santuary :

Samaspur Bird Santuary is situated in Rohaniya Development block of the district, about 122 k.m from Lucknow on Lucknow-Varanasi highway. It was established in 1987 on a total area of about 799.371 hectare. Nearest railway station is Unchahar and the nearest airport is Fursatganj, Raebareli.The best period of visit is from November to March. More than 250 varieties of birds can be seen here.Some of the birds come here from a distance of 5000 k.m. which include Greleg Googe, Pin Tail, Common Teel, Vision, Showler, Surkhab etc. Local birds include Comb Duck, Whistling Teel, Spot Bill, Spoon Bill, King Fisher, Vulture etc. Twelve varieties of fish are there in the lake at Samaspur

Dalmau :

Dalmau is situated on the banks of Holy Ganga and is famous since ancient times. It has been the Historical town of the district. Prominent palces at Dalmau are King Dal’s fort, Bara Math, Mahesh Giri Math, Nirala memorial Institute, A well constructed by Ebrahim Sharki, Palace of Nawab Shuza-ud-daula, Baithak of Alhaa Udal, Dalmau Pump canal etc.

Behta Bridge :

This Bridge is situated in the outskirts of the Raebareli city. The important thing of this Bridge is that at this place Sharda canal crosses the Sai river. An aqueduct has been constructed and the canal flows in the duct.

 

 

 

Mathura District of Uttar Pradesh at a Glance

About Mathura District :

Mathura is a sacred city in Uttar Pradesh, northern India. The deity Lord Krishna is said to have been born on the site of Sri Krishna Janma Bhoomi, a Hindu temple. Dotting the Yamuna River are 25 ghats (flights of steps down to the water), of which Vishram Ghat is considered the holiest. Sati Burj is a 16th-century memorial tower. Dwarkadhish Temple has a carved entrance and a black-marble idol of Lord Krishna

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Tourist Places :

Govardhan Hill :

Govardhan Hill is situated at a distance of 22 km from Mathura. It has been stated in the Holy Bhagwat Gita that according to Lord Krishna, Govardhan Parvat is not different from him. Therefore, all his worshipers worship the pure rocks of the hill just like they worship his idol. The hill is made up of sandstone and stands 80 ft tall with a circumference of 38 km. Some interesting places one gets to visit the hills including Mansi Ganga, Mukharvind, and Daan Ghati.

History says that Lord Krishna lifted the Govardhan Hill during his childhood on one finger to save his village of Mathura from fierce rains and thunderstorm. This hill is thereby considered holy and is visited by worshipers on Guru Purnima, Govardhan Puja in devotion by walking 23 km barefoot around the mountain. After Lord Krishna had saved his village, he told everyone to worship the hill which is why Govardhan Puja is a day after Diwali. It is a serene place, and definitely, a must visit!

Dwarkadheesh Temple :

The temple was constructed in the year 1814 by the treasurer of the Estate of Gwalior, Seth Gokul Das Parikh. The temple lies nearby Vishram Ghat. The temple is dedicated to Lord Krishna. Since Lord Krishna is also referred to as ‘King of Dwarka’, hence the temple got its name. Lord Krishna and Radha are the primary deities in the main shrine of the temple. The temple has paintings and carvings inside which give an ethereal look to the temple. Visitors from all over visit the place especially during the festival of Janmashtmi.

The temple comprises of the deity of Lord Krishna which is composed of black marble and the idol of Radha which is made up of white marble. The temple is massive and has a main building which is large and covered with an entrance which is constructed in Rajasthani style. The entrance has sharp steps which lead to the courtyard of the temple. Many God and Goddesses are present inside which make the temple all the more attractive and exquisite.

Ghats :

Multiple theerthams present here are well known as ghats with 25 of them present today in Mathura are related to Lord Krishna. It is believed that performance of certain rituals here can get rid one of all past wrongdoings and hence is visited by numerous devotees.

A visit to all 25 ensures a complete pilgrimage of Mathura

 

Tehri Garhwal District of Uttarakhand at a Glance

About Tehri Garhwal District :

Tehri Garhwal is one of the western most district of the Uttarakhand State located on the outer ranges of the mid Himalayas which comprise low line peaks rising contiguously with the planes of the northern India. The district lies between the parallels of 30.3` and 30.53` north latitude and 77.56` and 79.04` east longitude. Uttarkashi from the north, Rudraprayag from the east, Puri Garhwal from the south and Dehra Dun from the west are bounding the districts. On the western front Yamuna river separates it from Jaunsar Pragana of the Dehra Dun district while Bhagirathi rising from the north of the Gangotri in the district Uttarkashi touches the district near village Nagun. Total area of the district is 4421 sq. kms (Census 1991). The district headquarter is located at New Tehri Town. The places of tourist interests in the districts are Buda Kedar, Devprayag, Khatling Glacier, Narendra Nagar, Sem Mukhem, Chamba, Dhanaulti, Kunjapuri New Tehri, Surkanda Devi, Chandrabadni, Kempty Fall and Nagtibba

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Tourist Place :

Buda Kedar :

This temple is situated at the confluence of the Bal Ganga and Dharam Ganga rivers, at a motorable distance of 59 kms. from Tehri. It is believed that Duyodhan offered tarpana here.

According to legends, it is at this temple that the Pandavas encountered Rishi Balkhily at Bhrigu Parvat when they were on the lookout for Shiva after the Kurukshetra battle. The Rishi directed them to the site of the confluence to meet an old manmeditating there. But when the Pandava got there, the old man vanished and instead, a shivling appeared there. Rishi Balkhily instructed the Pandavas to embrace the Shivling in order to free themselves from their sins. Their impressions are stamped on this Shivling – the biggest Shivling in northen India.

Devprayag :

Situated at the confluence of the Alaknanda and the Bhagirathi, the town of Devaprayag lies at an altitude of 472 m. on the metalled road running from Rishikesh to Badrinath and about 87 km. from Narendra Nagar. Near the town there are two suspension bridges, one each on the Bhagirathi and the Alaknanda. The metalled road to Badrinath crosses the former by a third bridge. The town is the headquarters of the tahsil of the same name and is one of the five sacred prayags (confluences) of the Alaknanda. Tradition has it that the town is named after Deosharma, a sage, who led a life of penance here and succeeded in having a glimpse of God.

The great temple of Raghunathji is claimed to have been erected some ten thousand years ago and is built of massive uncemented stones. It stands upon a terrace in the upper part of the town and consists of an irregular pyramid capped by a white cupola with a golden ball and spire. Religious ablutions take place at 2 basins excavated in the rock at the junction of the holy streams – on the Bhagirathi known as the Brahm Kund and the other on the Alaknanda called the Vasisht Kund. The temple, along with the other Buildings of the town, was shattered by an earthquake in 1803 but the damage was subsequently repaired through the munificence of Daulat Rao Sindhia. The temple is visited by a large number of pilgrims every year.

The town is the seat of the pandas of the Badrinath Dham and possesses a post and telegraph office, a public call office, a police out-post, a dak bungalow of the public works department and a hospital.

Besides the temple of Raghunathji, there are in the town Baital Kund,Brahm Kund,Surya Kund and Vasisht Kund; the Indradyumna Tirth,Pushyamal Tirth, Varah Tirth ; Pushpavatika ; Baitalshila and Varahishila ; the shrines of Bhairava, Bhushandi, Durga and Vishveshvara ; and a temple dedicated to Bharata. A bath at Baithalshila is claimed to cure leprosy.

Nearby is the Dasharathachal Peak, containing a rock, known as Dashrathshila, on which Raja Dasharath is said to have led a life of penance.A small stream, the shanta running down from the Dasharathachal, is named after Shanta, the daughter of Raja Dasharath and is considered to be sacred.

Chamba :60 kms. from Mussoorie and 48 kms. from Narendra Nagar on the road to Gangotri. Chamba is a township lying high at an altitude of 1676 mts., offering a splendid view of the snow-capped Himalayas and the serene Bhagirathi valley. Chamba happens to be a focal point, being located at the junction of roads leading from Mussoorie, Rishikesh, Tehri and New Tehri. The Chamba- Mussoorie fruit belt is also famous for its delicious apples. Jal Nigam Rest House, Tourist Rest House, Hotel Akash Deep, Akash Lok, Neelkant, Social Palace & Hotel Classic Hill Top provide comfortable accommodation

 

Pithoragarh District of Uttarakhand at a Glance

About Pithoragarh District :

Pithoragarh District having its entire northern and eastern boundaries being international, assumes a great strategicsignificance and, obviously, is a politically sensitive district along the northern frontier of India. The Pithoragarh town is located at a height of 1645 meters above sea level.The district lies between 29.4° to 30.3° North latitude and 80° to 81° East longitude along the eastern and southern part of the central Himalayas with Indo-Tibbetan watershed divide in the north and the Kali river forming a continuous border with Nepal in the east. The Pithoragarh district is surrounded by the national boundaries of Almora, Champawat, Bageshwar and Chamoli districts and extends over an area of 7,217.7 sq. kms. The district is administratively divided into 11 Tehsils and 8 Blocks. The places of tourist interests in the districts are Chandak, Thal Kedar, Gangolihat famous for its kali temple, Patal Bhuvneshwar, Berinag Tea Garden of Chaukori, Didihat, Munsyari, Dharchula and Jauljibi.

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Tourist Places :

Chandak : Situated 7 Kms away by bus through an uphill climb Chandak constitutes the northern of Soar Valley.The famous temple of Mostamanu is 2 Km. from Chandak. Chandak offers a fascinating view of the Himalayan ranges and the sprawling Soar Valley. It is a potential hang gliding resort and the magnesite mining factory is located too here.

Thal Kedar : Known for its famous temple of Mahadev. 16 Km from Pithoragarh. Jayanti Temple of Dhwaj 21 Km via Totanaula. Cave temple of Kapileshwar. Cave temple at Rai , Ulka Devi Temple, Kailash Ashram Wadda , Hanuman Temple etc.

Gangolihat : An important religious place and rich in folk culture and ancient myths , is situated 77 Km from Pithoragarh . It is particularly well known for the famous Mahakali temple where the Shakti Peeth was installed by Shankaracharya himself. During Navratries a fair is held on the occasion of which devotees offer pujas-along with sacrifices. 2 Km from Gangolihat near the Mankeshwar temple are the ruins of the fort which once belonged to the Mankotis -an obscure dynasty of Kumaon region. 2 Km away is Uprara, the native village of poet ‘Gumani’, the first Kumaoni poet, who also wrote in Hindi, Sanskrit and Nepali with great dexterity and command. 4 Km east from Uprara, near the village of Tamanauli is the Bharbhyo cave.

Accommodation : P.W.D. Rest House, Gopal Tourist Lodge, Shah Tourist Lodge.

Places of Tourist Attraction : Mahakali Temple , Chamunda Temple ,Mankeshwar Temple ,Cave Temple of Patal Bhuvneshwar.

Berinag : A small township facing the glorious snow clad pieces of Himalayas. Berinag is situated at a distance of 102 Km from Pithoragarh at an elevation of 1720 meters.

Accommodation :Tourist Rest House(Chaukori), P.W.D. Rest House, Hotels Kailash Darshan and Kamal Vihar.

Places of Tourist Attraction : Snake Temples, Tripura Devi Temple, Cave Temple of Koteshwar, Tea Gardens of Chaukori,

Chaukori : Eleven Km away from Berinag, Garaun water falls four Kms to the east of the Berinag, Musk Deer Farm at Kotmanya, Him Darshan Kutir at Dharamghar.

Thal : An important transit station for Mun- syari and Chaukori (Berinag). Thal is 62 Km away from Pithoragarh and is situated on the banks of Ram Ganga.

Places of Tourist Attraction :Ek Hatiya Temple, a monolithic shrine in Amiya village is 2 Km away from the motor road.

Kot Gari Devi : Situated about 9 Kms from Thal the temple of Kotgari is held to be the final divine court of appeal for the deprived and the victim of cruelty and injustice.

Didihat : 55 Kms from Pithoragarh, Didihat is situated at an elevation of 1725 meters.

Accommodation : P.W.D. Rest House, Tourist Rest House.

Hotels : Anand Hotel, Kumaun Hotel, National Hotel, Sharma Hotel.

Places of Tourist Interest : Seerakot fort cum Temple : 3 Km from Didihat Govt. Sericulture Garden is situated near G.I.C.

Munsyari : Munsyari, the center as well as the gateway of Johar region is

situated 154 Km from Pithoragarh at an elevation of 2298 meters and is snuggled in the folds of snow clad mountains.

Accommodation : P.W.D. Rest House, Tourist Rest House.

Hotel : Himani Tourist Lodge, Zara Residency.

Places of Tourist Interest :Munsyari is the base station for traks to Millam, Ralam and Namik Glaciers.

Dharchula : Situated at the banks of Kali river at the border of Pithoragarh district, Dharchula is 94 Km from Pithoragarh and is an important camp along the Kailash Mansarovar, Chotta Kailash and Narayan Ashram route.

Accommodation : N.H.P.C. Guest House , P.W.D. Rest House , Tourist Reception Centre and Hotel Yash.

Places of Tourist Attraction

Narayan Ashram : Established by Narayan Swami in 1936 , Narayan Ashram is situated at a distance of 17 Kms from Tawaghat. The Ashram is a spiritual cum socio-educational centre.

 

 

 

 

 

Jauljibi : A point of confluence of the river Gori and Kali and of three different cultures, is situated at a distance of 77 Km from Pithoragarh.

During the autumn season Jauljibi pulsates with an important trade fair which is an indication of the cultural and commercial prosperity of the region. Along the Kailash Mansarovar route, from Gunji (3500 m), one can move along the quieter Kali to walk to 10 Km to reach Kalapani (3600 m). There are pine, bhojpatra and juniper forests in this region. Although the river has been coming all the way from Lipulekh pass, the small pool formed under a huge rock is considered to be the source of the Kali. There are snow -clad mountains all around and Vyas’s cave is to be found on the mountain in front of Rishi Vyas that the region is known as Byans. There is also a hot water spring at Kalapani.

Adventure Spots : The department of tourism proposes to create and provide necessary infrastructure, equipments and the allied facilities for adventures sports like:
(a) Hang Gliding, (b) Para Gliding

Gliders can be made available on hire and conveyance to the gliding point and first aid facilities can be provided. Chandak, Munakot and Dwaj have been proposed into gliding points.

 

Darjeeling District of West Bengal at a Glance

About Darjeeling District :

Darjeeling, the northernmost district of the Jalpaiguri Division, roughly resembles an inverted wedge with its base resting on Sikkim, its sides touching Nepal, Bhutan and the Jalpaiguri District of West Bengal. The district is located at 27 Deg. 13 Min. N to 26 Deg. 27 Min. North Latitude and 88 Deg. 53 Min. E to 87 Deg. 59 Min. East Longitude. The Area of the district is 3149 sq km. The district is divided into 4 Subdivisions 12 Blocks and 1534 Villages. The places of tourist interests in the districts are Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Kurseong means – the place of White Orchid, Mirik-a nest in the hills , Mungpoo, and Darjeeling Himalayan Railway

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Tourist Places :

Tiger Hill :

Situated at an altitude of 2590 meters (8482 ft.) and 13 kilometers from the town, this spot has earned international fame for the magnificent view of the sunrise over the “Kanchanjunga” and the great eastern Himalayan Mountains. Even Mount Everest, the world’s highest peak, is visible from here. The hesitant rays of the early morning sun paint these peaks in pale gold

Batasia Loop and the War Memorial :

The Batasia loop situated almost 5 km away from the town is a gigantic railway loop where the Toy Train makes a 360 Degree turn. It was basically built to make it possible for the Toy Train to cut the deep ascend. Strategically located the Batasia Loop offers a panoramic view of the Kanchanjunga Range.A War Memorial constructed in the memory of the brave sons of the soil who laid down their lives in the different wars since the independence of the nation adds to its attraction. There is also a well furbished market where visitors can buy locally made purses, bags and other decorative items.
Chowrasta and Mall :
Chowrasta, a wide promenade atop a ridge lined with shops and restaurants is taken to be the heart of the town. Here people gather to chat, spend time basking in the sun or just to snatch a moment of peace. The Brabourne Park is attached to the Chowrasta and now features a musical fountain. This place is an open place and free from vehicular movements from where one can watch the scenic beauty of the mountain range and take charm of walking at the Darjeeling Mall. Chowrasta is the central place of the Mall Road
Ganga Maya Park :
Situated 10 km from town, Rock Garden and Ganga Maya Park has now developed into a very attractive picnic spot with natural water falls. The park offers boating facilities and is endowed with great scenic beauty. Ample eateries are available for visitors to indulge in local delicacies and one can even buy souvenirs. No fees are charged for taking photographs. Visitors are however, required to make arrangements for transportation. A two way travel arrangement is advisable.

Debasish Kar Gupta

The Hon’ble Justice Debasish Kar Gupta

Born on January 1, 1957. Passed B.Comin the year 1976 and LL.B. in the year 1980 – both from the University of Calcutta. Was enrolled as an Advocate on September 22, 1982. Practised in the High Court at Calcutta in Constitutional (all subjects including Labour and Service) and Civil matters. Specialised in Service matters. Also practised in the Central Administrative Tribunal, Calcutta Bench, and West Bengal Administrative Tribunal. Was appointed Junior Standing Counsel for the State of West Bengal on September 17, 1996 and thereafter Additional Government Pleader on January 7, 2002. Was Government Pleader (Acting) with effect from March 2, 2006 in addition to the post of Additional Government Pleader. Became designated as a Senior Advocate by the High Court at Calcutta in March, 2005. Was elevated to the Bench of the High Court at Calcutta as a permanent Judge on June 22, 2006.

JEE Advanced 2014 Chemistry Syllabus (Organic Chemistry)

Organic Chemistry:

  • Concepts: Hybridisation of carbon; Sigma and pi-bonds; Shapes of simple organic molecules; Structural and geometrical isomerism;  Optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric centres, (R,S and E,Z nomenclature excluded); IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds (only hydrocarbons, mono-functional and bi-functional compounds); Conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections); Resonance and hyperconjugation; Keto-enol tautomerism; Determination of empirical and molecular formulae of simple compounds (only combustion method); Hydrogen bonds: definition and their effects on physical properties of alcohols and carboxylic acids; Inductive and resonance effects on acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases; Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides; Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage;  Formation, structure and stability of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals.
  • Preparation, properties and reactions of alkanes: Homologous series, physical properties of alkanes (melting points, boiling points and density); Combustion and halogenation of alkanes; Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions.
  • Preparation, properties and reactions of alkenes and alkynes: Physical properties of alkenes and alkynes (boiling points, density and dipole moments); Acidity of alkynes; Acid catalysed hydration of alkenes and alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination); Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and ozone; Reduction of alkenes and alkynes; Preparation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions; Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2, HX, HOX (X=halogen) and H2O;  Addition reactions of alkynes; Metal acetylides.
  • Reactions of benzene: Structure and aromaticity; Electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation; Effect of  o-, m- and p-directing groups in monosubstituted benzenes.
  • henols: Acidity, electrophilic substitution reactions (halogenation, nitration and sulphonation); Reimer-Tieman reaction, Kolbe reaction.
  • Characteristic reactions of the following (including those mentioned above):  Alkyl halides: rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation, Grignard reactions,  nucleophilic substitution reactions;  Alcohols: esterification, dehydration and oxidation, reaction with sodium, phosphorus halides, ZnCl2/concentrated HCl, conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones; Ethers:Preparation by Williamson’s  Synthesis; Aldehydes and Ketones: oxidation, reduction, oxime and hydrazone formation; aldol condensation, Perkin reaction; Cannizzaro reaction; haloform reaction and nucleophilic addition reactions (Grignard addition);  Carboxylic acids: formation of esters, acid chlorides and amides, ester hydrolysis; Amines: basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines, preparation from nitro compounds, reaction with nitrous acid, azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines, Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts; carbylamine reaction; Haloarenes: nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes and substituted haloarenes (excluding Benzyne mechanism and Cine substitution).
  • Carbohydrates: Classification; mono- and di-saccharides (glucose and sucrose); Oxidation, reduction, glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose.
  • Amino acids and peptides: General structure (only primary structure for peptides) and physical properties.
  • Properties and uses of some important polymers: Natural rubber, cellulose, nylon, teflon and PVC.
  • Practical organic chemistry: Detection of elements (N, S, halogens); Detection and identification of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl, amino and nitro; Chemical methods of separation of mono-functional organic compounds from binary mixtures.

JEE Advanced 2014 Chemistry Syllabus (Inorganic Chemistry)

Inorganic Chemistry:

  • Isolation/preparation and properties of the following non-metals: Boron, silicon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulphur and halogens; Properties of allotropes of carbon (only diamond and graphite), phosphorus and sulphur.
  • Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides, peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium; Boron: diborane, boric acid and borax; Aluminium: alumina, aluminium chloride and alums; Carbon: oxides and oxyacid (carbonic acid); Silicon: silicones, silicates and silicon carbide;  Nitrogen: oxides, oxyacids and ammonia; Phosphorus: oxides, oxyacids (phosphorus acid, phosphoric acid) and phosphine; Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen peroxide; Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide, oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate; Halogens: hydrohalic acids, oxides and oxyacids of chlorine, bleaching powder; Xenon fluorides.
  • Transition elements (3d series): Definition, general characteristics, oxidation states and their stabilities, colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment; Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms, hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds (linear, tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral).
  • Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides and chlorides of tin and lead; Oxides, chlorides and sulphates of Fe2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+; Potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, silver oxide, silver nitrate, silver thiosulphate.
  • Ores and minerals: Commonly occurring ores and minerals of iron, copper, tin, lead, magnesium, aluminium, zinc and silver.
  • Extractive metallurgy: Chemical principles and reactions only (industrial details excluded); Carbon reduction method (iron and tin); Self reduction method (copper and lead); Electrolytic reduction method (magnesium and aluminium); Cyanide process (silver and gold).
  • Principles of qualitative analysis: Groups I to V (only Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Bi3+, Fe3+, Cr3+,  Al3+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+); Nitrate, halides (excluding fluoride), sulphate and sulphide.

JEE Advanced 2014 Chemistry Syllabus (Physical chemistry)

Physical chemistry

  • General topics: Concept of atoms and molecules; Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept; Chemical formulae; Balanced chemical equations; Calculations (based on mole concept) involving common oxidation-reduction, neutralisation, and displacement reactions; Concentration in terms of mole fraction, molarity, molality and normality.
  • Gaseous and liquid states: Absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation; Deviation from ideality, van der Waals equation; Kinetic theory of gases, average, root mean square and most probable velocities and their relation with temperature; Law of partial pressures; Vapour pressure; Diffusion of gases.
  • Atomic structure and chemical bonding:  Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers; Wave-particle duality, de Broglie hypothesis; Uncertainty principle; Qualitative quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom, shapes of s, p and d orbitals; Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic number 36); Aufbau principle; Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule; Orbital overlap and covalent bond; Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals only; Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species;  Hydrogen bond; Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only); VSEPR model and shapes of molecules (linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedral and octahedral).
  • Energetics: First law of thermodynamics; Internal energy, work and heat, pressure-volume work; Enthalpy, Hess’s law; Heat of reaction, fusion and vapourization; Second law of thermodynamics; Entropy; Free energy; Criterion of spontaneity.
  • Chemical equilibrium:  Law of mass action; Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s principle (effect of concentration, temperature and pressure); Significance of ΔG and ΔG° in chemical equilibrium; Solubility product, common ion effect, pH and buffer solutions;  Acids and bases (Bronsted and Lewis concepts); Hydrolysis of salts.
  • Electrochemistry: Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Standard electrode potentials; Nernst equation and its relation to ΔG; Electrochemical series, emf of galvanic cells; Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Electrolytic conductance, specific, equivalent and molar conductivity, Kohlrausch’s law; Concentration cells.
  • Chemical kinetics:  Rates of chemical reactions; Order of reactions; Rate constant; First order reactions; Temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation).
  • Solid state: Classification of solids, crystalline state, seven crystal systems (cell parameters a, b, c, α, β, γ), close packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices; Nearest neighbours, ionic radii, simple ionic compounds, point defects.
  • Solutions:  Raoult’s law; Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point.
  • Surface chemistry:  Elementary concepts of adsorption (excluding adsorption isotherms); Colloids: types, methods of preparation and general properties; Elementary ideas of emulsions, surfactants and micelles (only definitions and examples).
  • Nuclear chemistry:  Radioactivity: isotopes and isobars; Properties of α, β and γ rays; Kinetics of radioactive decay (decay series excluded), carbon dating; Stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio; Brief discussion on fission and fusion reactions.