Syllabus for BITSAT 2014

 Mathematics

1.   Algebra

1.1   Complex numbers, addition, multiplication, conjugation, polar representation, properties of modulus and principal  argument,  triangle  inequality,  roots  of  complex  numbers,  geometric  interpretations; Fundamental theorem of algebra.

1.2   Theory of Quadratic equations, quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions, relation between roots and coefficients, nature of roots, equations reducible to quadratic equations.

1.3   Arithmetic,  geometric  and  harmonic  progressions,  arithmetic,  geometric  and  harmonic  means, arithmetico-geometric series,   sums of finite arithmetic and geometric progressions, infinite geometric series, sums of squares and cubes of the first n natural numbers.

1.4   Logarithms and their properties.

1.5   Exponential series.

1.6   Permutations and combinations, Permutations as an arrangement and combination as selection, simple applications.

1.7   Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, properties of binomial coefficients, Pascal’s triangle.

1.8   Matrices and determinants of order two or three, properties and evaluation of determinants, addition and multiplication of matrices, adjoint and inverse of matrices, Solutions of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables, elementary row and column operations of matrices.

1.9   Sets, Relations and Functions, algebra of sets applications, equivalence relations, mappings, one-one, into and onto mappings, composition of mappings, binary operation, inverse of function, functions of real variables like polynomial, modulus, signum and greatest integer.

1.10   Mathematical Induction

1.11   Linear Inequalities, solution of linear inequalities in one and two variables.

2.    Trigonometry

2.1   Measurement of angles in radians and degrees, positive and  negative angles, trigonometric ratios, functions and identities.

2.2    Solution of trigonometric equations.

2.3     Properties of triangles and solutions of triangles

2.4    Inverse trigonometric functions

2.5    Heights and distances

3.    Two-dimensional Coordinate Geometry

3.1    Cartesian coordinates, distance between two points, section formulae, shift of origin.

3.2    Straight lines and pair of straight lines: Equation of straight lines in various forms, angle between two lines, distance of a point from a line, lines through the point of intersection of two given lines, equation of the bisector of the angle between two lines, concurrent lines.

3.3   Circles and family of circles :Equation of circle in various form, equation of tangent, normal   & chords, parametric equations of a circle , intersection of a circle with a straight line or a circle, equation of circle through point of intersection of two circles, conditions for two intersecting circles to be orthogonal.

3.4    Conic sections : parabola, ellipse and hyperbola their eccentricity, directrices & foci, parametric forms, equations of tangent & normal, conditions for y=mx+c to be a tangent   and point of tangency.

4.    Three dimensional Coordinate Geometry

4.1   Co-ordinate  axes  and  co-ordinate  planes,  distance  between  two  points,  section  formula,  direction cosines and direction ratios, equation of a straight line in space and skew lines.

4.2    Angle between two lines whose direction ratios are given, shortest distance between two lines.

4.3   Equation of a plane, distance of a point from a plane, condition for coplanarity of three lines, angles between two planes, angle between a line and a plane.

5.    Differential calculus

5.1   Domain and range of a real valued function, Limits and Continuity of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, Differentiability.

5.2  Derivative  of  different  types  of  functions (polynomial,  rational,  trigonometric,  inverse  trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, implicit functions), derivative of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, chain rule.

5.3   Geometric interpretation of derivative, Tangents and Normals.

5.4    Increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of a function.

5.5    Rolle’s Theorem, Mean Value Theorem and Intermediate Value Theorem.

6.    Integral calculus

6.1   Integration as the inverse process of differentiation, indefinite integrals of standard functions.

6.2  Methods of integration: Integration by substitution, Integration by parts, integration by partial fractions, and integration by trigonometric identities.

6.3  Definite integrals and their properties, Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus, applications in finding areas under simple curves.

6.4   Application of definite integrals to the determination of areas of regions bounded by simple curves.

7.   Ordinary Differential Equations

7.1   Order and degree of a differential equation, formulation of a differential equation whole general solution is given, variables separable method.

7.2    Solution of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree

7.3   Linear first order differential equations

8.    Probability

8.1   Various  terminology  in  probability,  axiomatic  and  other  approaches  of  probability,  addition  and multiplication rules of probability.

8.2   Conditional probability, total probability and Baye’s theorem

8.3   Independent events

8.4   Discrete random variables and distributions with mean and variance.

9.    Vectors

9.1   Direction ratio/cosines of vectors, addition of vectors, scalar multiplication, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio.

9.2   Dot and cross products of two vectors, projection of a vector on a line.

9.3    Scalar triple products and their geometrical interpretations.

10. Statistics

10.1  Measures of dispersion

10.2   Measures of skewness and Central Tendency, Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances

11.Linear Programming

11.1      Various terminology and formulation of linear Programming

11.2   Solution of linear Programming using graphical method, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (upto three nonitrivial constraints)

   Physics

1. Units & Measurement

1.1          Units (Different systems of units, SI units, fundamental and derived units)

1.2          Dimensional Analysis

1.3          Precision and significant figures

1.4          Fundamental measurements in Physics (Vernier calipers, screw gauge, Physical balance etc)

2. Kinematics

2.1          Properties of vectors

2.2          Position, velocity and acceleration vectors

2.3          Motion with constant acceleration

2.4          Projectile motion

2.5          Uniform circular motion

2.6          Relative motion

3. Newton’s Laws of Motion

3.1          Newton’s laws (free body diagram, resolution of forces)

3.2          Motion on an inclined plane

3.3          Motion of blocks with pulley systems

3.4          Circular motion – centripetal force

3.5          Inertial and non-inertial frames

4. Impulse and Momentum

4.1          Definition of impulse and momentum

4.2          Conservation of momentum

4.3          Collisions

4.4          Momentum of a system of particles

4.5          Center of mass

5. Work and Energy

5.1          Work done by a force

5.2          Kinetic energy and work-energy theorem

5.3          Power

5.4          Conservative forces and potential energy

5.5          Conservation of mechanical energy

6. Rotational Motion

6.1          Description of rotation (angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration)

6.2          Rotational motion with constant angular acceleration

6.3          Moment of inertia, Parallel and perpendicular axes theorems, rotational kinetic energy

6.4          Torque and angular momentum

6.5          Conservation of angular momentum

6.6          Rolling motion

7. Gravitation

7.1          Newton’s law of gravitation

7.2          Gravitational potential energy, Escape velocity

7.3          Motion of planets – Kepler’s laws, satellite motion

8. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids

8.1          Elasticity

8.2          Pressure, density and Archimedes’ principle

8.3          Viscosity and Surface Tension

8.4          Bernoulli’s theorem

9. Oscillations

9.1          Kinematics of simple harmonic motion

9.2          Spring mass system, simple and compound pendulum

9.3          Forced & damped oscillations, resonance

10. Waves

10.1        Progressive sinusoidal waves

10.2        Standing waves in strings and pipes

10.3        Superposition of waves, beats

10.4        Doppler Effect

11. Heat and Thermodynamics

11.1        Kinetic theory of gases

11.2        Thermal equilibrium and temperature

11.3        Specific heat, Heat Transfer – Conduction, convection and radiation,   thermal conductivity, Newton’s law of cooling

11.4        Work, heat and first law of thermodynamics

11.5        2nd   law of thermodynamics, Carnot engine – Efficiency and Coefficient of performance

12. Electrostatics

12.1        Coulomb’s law

12.2        Electric field (discrete and continuous charge distributions)

12.3        Electrostatic potential and Electrostatic potential energy

12.4        Gauss’ law and its applications

12.5        Electric dipole

12.6        Capacitance and dielectrics (parallel plate capacitor, capacitors in series and parallel)

13. Current Electricity

13.1        Ohm’s law, Joule heating

13.2        D.C circuits – Resistors and cells in series and parallel, Kirchoff’s laws, potentiometer and Wheatstone bridge

13.3        Electrical Resistance (Resistivity, origin and temperature dependence of resistivity).

14. Magnetic Effect of Current

14.1        Biot-Savart’s law and its applications

14.2        Ampere’s law and its applications

14.3        Lorentz force, force on current carrying conductors in a magnetic field

14.4        Magnetic moment of a current loop, torque on a current loop, Galvanometer and its conversion to voltmeter and ammeter

15. Electromagnetic Induction

15.1        Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law, eddy currents

15.2        Self and mutual inductance

15.3        Transformers and generators

15.4        Alternating current (peak and rms value)

15.5        AC circuits, LCR circuits

16. Optics

16.1        Laws of reflection and refraction

16.2        Lenses and mirrors

16.3        Optical instruments – telescope and microscope

16.4        Interference – Huygen’s principle, Young’s double slit experiment

16.5        Interference in thin films

16.6        Diffraction due to a single slit

16.7        Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (only qualitative ideas), Electromagnetic spectrum

16.8        Polarization – states of polarization, Malus’ law, Brewster’s law

17. Modern Physics

17.1        Dual nature of light and matter – Photoelectric effect, De Broglie wavelength

17.2        Atomic models – Rutherford’s experiment, Bohr’s atomic model

17.3        Hydrogen atom spectrum

17.4        Radioactivity

17.5        Nuclear reactions : Fission and fusion, binding energy

Chemistry

1. States of Matter

1.1          Measurement: Physical quantities and SI units, Dimensional analysis, Precision, Significant figures.

1.2       Chemical  reactions:  Laws  of  chemical  combination,  Dalton’s  atomic  theory;  Mole  concept;  Atomic, molecular and molar masses; Percentage composition empirical & molecular formula; Balanced chemical equations & stoichiometry

1.3        Gaseous state: Gas Laws, ideal behavior, empirical derivation of gas equation, Kinetic theory – Maxwell distribution  of  velocities,  Average,  root  mean  square  and  most  probable  velocities  and  relation  to temperature, Diffusion; Deviation from ideal behaviour – Critical temperature, Liquefaction of gases, vander Waals equation.

1.4        Liquid state: Vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity.

1.5        Solid state: Classification; Space lattices & crystal systems; Unit cell – Cubic & hexagonal systems; Close packing; Crystal structures : Simple AB and AB2 type ionic crystals, covalent crystals – diamond & graphite, metals.  Imperfections-  Point  defects,  non-stoichiometric  crystals;  Electrical,  magnetic  and  dielectric properties; Amorphous solids – qualitative description. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators, and n- and p- type semiconductors.

2. Atomic Structure

2.1        Introduction: Radioactivity, Subatomic particles; Atomic number, isotopes and isobars, Rutherford’s picture of atom; Hydrogen atom  spectrum and Bohr model.

2.2       Quantum mechanics: Wave-particle duality  – de Broglie relation, Uncertainty principle; Hydrogen atom: Quantum numbers and  wavefunctions, atomic orbitals and their shapes  (s, p, and d), Spin quantum number.

2.3        Many electron atoms: Pauli exclusion principle; Aufbau principle and the electronic configuration of atoms, Hund’s rule.

2.4        Periodicity: Periodic law and the modern periodic table; Types of elements: s, p, d, and f blocks; Periodic trends: ionization energy, atomic and ionic radii, electron affinity, electro negativity and valency.

3.   Chemical Bonding & Molecular Structure

3.1        Ionic Bond: Lattice Energy and Born-Haber cycle; Covalent character of ionic bonds and polar character of covalent bond

3.2       Molecular Structure: Lewis picture & resonance structures, VSEPR model & molecular shapes

3.3      Covalent Bond: Valence Bond Theory- Orbital overlap, Directionality of bonds & hybridization (s, p & d orbitals only), Resonance ; Molecular orbital theory- Methodology, Orbital energy level diagram, Bond order, Magnetic properties for homonuclear diatomic species.

3.4      Metallic Bond: Qualitative description.

3.5      Intermolecular Forces: Polarity; Dipole moments; Hydrogen Bond.

4. Thermodynamics

4.1      Basic Concepts: Systems and surroundings; State functions; Intensive & Extensive Properties; Zeroth Law and Temperature

4.2      First  Law  of  Thermodynamics:  Work,  internal  energy,  heat,  enthalpy,  heat  capacities;  Enthalpies  of formation,  phase  transformation,  ionization,  electron  gain;  Thermochemistry;  Hess’s  Law.  Bond dissociation, combustion, atomization, sublimation , dilution

4.3    Second Law: Spontaneous and reversible processes; entropy; Gibbs free energy related to spontaneity and  non-mechanical  work ;  Standard  free  energies  of  formation,  free  energy  change  and  chemical equilibrium

4.4   Third Law: Introduction

5. Physical and Chemical Equilibria

5.1   Concentration Units: Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality

5.2   Solutions: Solubility of solids and gases in liquids, Vapour Pressure, Raoult’s law, Relative lowering of vapour pressure,  depression  in freezing point; elevation in boiling point; osmotic pressure, determination of molecular mass; solid solutions.

5.3   Physical  Equilibrium:  Equilibria  involving  physical  changes (solid-liquid,  liquid-gas,  solid-gas),  Surface chemistry,  Adsorption ,  Physical and  Chemical  adsorption,  Langmuir  Isotherm, Colloids  and  emulsion, classification, preparation, uses.

5.4   Chemical Equilibria: Equilibrium constants (KP, KC), Le-Chatelier’s principle.

5.5   Ionic Equilibria: Strong and Weak electrolytes, Acids and Bases (Arrhenius, Lewis, Lowry and Bronsted) and their dissociation; Ionization of Water; pH; Buffer solutions; Acid-base titrations; Hydrolysis; Solubility Product of Sparingly Soluble Salts; Common Ion Effect.

5.6   Factors Affecting Equilibria: Concentration, Temperature, Pressure, Catalysts, Significance of G and Gin Chemical Equilibria.

6. Electrochemistry

6.1   Redox Reactions: Oxidation-reduction reactions (electron transfer concept); Oxidation number; Balancing of redox reactions; Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Electrode potentials; EMF of Galvanic cells; Nernst equation; Factors affecting the electrode potential; Gibbs energy change and cell potential;  Secondary cells; Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention.

6.2  Electrolytic Conduction: Electrolytic Conductance; Specific and molar conductivities; Kolhrausch’s Law and its application, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Coulometer; Electrode potential and electrolysis, Commercial production of the chemicals, NaOH, Na, Al, Cl2   & F2.

7. Chemical Kinetics

7.1   Aspects of Kinetics: Rate and Rate expression of a reaction; Rate constant; Order and molecularity of the reaction; Integrated rate expressions and half life for zero and first order reactions.

7.2  Factor Affecting the Rate of the Reactions: Concentration of the reactants, size of particles; Temperature dependence of rate constant; Activation energy; Catalysis, Surface catalysis, enzymes, zeolites; Factors affecting rate of collisions between molecules.

7.3   Mechanism of Reaction: Elementary reactions; Complex reactions; Reactions involving two/three steps only.

8. Hydrogen and s-block elements

8.1   Hydrogen:  Element:  unique  position  in  periodic  table,  occurrence,  isotopes;  Dihydrogen:  preparation, properties, reactions, and uses; Molecular, saline, ionic, covalent, interstitial hydrides; Water: Properties; Structure and aggregation of water molecules; Heavy water; Hydrogen peroxide: preparation, reaction, structure & use, Hydrogen as a fuel.

8.2   s-block elements:   Abundance and occurrence; Anomalous properties of the first elements in each group; diagonal relationships; trends in the variation of properties (ionization energy, atomic & ionic radii).

8.3          Alkali metals: Lithium, sodium and potassium: occurrence, extraction, reactivity, and electrode potentials; Biological importance; Reactions with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens water and liquid ammonia; Basic nature of oxides and hydroxides; Halides; Properties and uses of compounds such as NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCl, and KOH.

8.4     Alkaline earth metals: Magnesium and calcium: Occurrence, extraction, reactivity and electrode potentials; Reactions with non-metals; Solubility and thermal stability of oxo salts; Biological importance; Properties and uses of important compounds such as CaO, Ca(OH)2, plaster of Paris, MgSO4, MgCl2, CaCO3, and CaSO4; Lime and limestone, cement.

9. p- d- and f-block elements

9.1   General: Abundance, distribution, physical and chemical properties, isolation and uses of elements; Trends in  chemical  reactivity  of  elements  of  a  group;  electronic  configuration,  oxidation  states;  anomalous properties of first element of each group.

9.2   Group 13 elements: Boron; Properties and uses of borax, boric acid, boron hydrides & halides. Reaction of aluminum with acids and alkalis;

9.3  Group 14 elements: Carbon: carbon catenation, physical & chemical properties, uses, allotropes (graphite, diamond, fullerenes), oxides, halides and sulphides, carbides; Silicon: Silica, silicates, silicone, silicon tetrachloride, Zeolites.

9.4  Group  15  elements:  Dinitrogen;  Reactivity  and  uses  of  nitrogen  and  its  compounds;  Industrial  and biological nitrogen fixation; Ammonia: Haber’s process, properties and reactions; Oxides of nitrogen and their  structures;  Ostwald’s  process  of  nitric  acid  production;  Fertilizers -    NPK  type;  Production  of phosphorus; Allotropes of phosphorus; Preparation, structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids (elementary idea only) and halides of phosphorus, phosphine.

9.5   Group 16 elements:   Isolation and chemical reactivity of dioxygen; Acidic, basic and amphoteric oxides; Preparation, structure and properties of ozone; Allotropes of sulphur; Production of sulphur and sulphuric acid; Structure and properties of oxides, oxoacids (structures only), hydrides and halides of sulphur.

9.6   Group  17 and group  18 elements: Structure and properties of hydrides, oxides,  oxoacids of chlorine (structures only); preparation, properties & uses of chlorine & HCl; Inter halogen compounds; Bleaching Powder; Preparation, structure and reactions of xenon fluorides, oxides, and oxoacids.

9.7   d-Block elements: General trends in the chemistry of first row transition elements; Metallic character; Oxidation  state;  ionization  enthalpy;  Ionic  radii;  Catalytic  properties;  Magnetic  properties;  Interstitial compounds; Occurrence and extraction of iron, copper, silver, zinc, and mercury; Alloy formation; Steel and some important alloys; preparation and properties of CuSO4, K2Cr2O7, KMnO4, Mercury halides; Silver nitrate and silver halides; Photography.

9.8   f-Block  elements:  Lanthanoids  and  actinoids;  Oxidation  states  and  chemical  reactivity  of  lanthanoids compounds; Lanthanide contraction; Comparison of actinoids and lanthanoids.

9.9   Coordination  Compounds:  Coordination  number;  Ligands;  Werner’s  coordination  theory;  IUPAC nomenclature; Application and importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems e.g. chlorophyll, vitamin B12, and hemoglobin); Bonding: Valence-bond approach, Crystal field theory  (qualitative); Stability constants; Shapes, color and magnetic properties; Isomerism including stereoisomerisms; Organometallic compounds.

10. Principles of Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons

10.1  Classification:   Based on functional groups, trivial and IUPAC nomenclature. Methods of purification: qualitative and quantitative.

10.2   Electronic displacement in a covalent bond:    Inductive, resonance effects, and hyperconjugation; free radicals; carbocations, carbanions, nucleophiles and electrophiles; types of organic reactions.

10.3        Alkanes and cycloalkanes:   Structural isomerism, general properties and chemical reactions.

10.4    Alkenes and alkynes: General methods of preparation and reactions, physical properties, electrophilic and free radical additions, acidic   character of alkynes and (1,2 and 1,4) addition to dienes.

10.5    Aromatic hydrocarbons: Sources; properties; isomerism; resonance delocalization; aromaticity; polynuclear hydrocarbons;  mechanism  of  electrophilic  substitution  reaction,  directive  influence  and  effect  of substituents on reactivity; carcinogenicity and toxicity.

10.6   Haloalkanes  and  haloarenes:  Physical  properties,  chemical  reactions  and  mechanism  of  substitution reaction. Uses and environmental effects; di, tri, tetrachloromethanes, iodoform, freon and DDT.

10.7   Petroleum: Composition and refining, uses of petrochemicals.

11. Stereochemistry

11.1    Introduction: Chiral molecules; optical activity; polarimetry; R,S and D,L configurations; Fischer projections; enantiomerism; racemates; diastereomerism and meso structures.

11.2    Conformations: Ethane conformations; Newman and Sawhorse projections.

11.3    Geometrical isomerism in alkenes

12. Organic Compounds with Functional Groups Containing Oxygen and Nitrogen

12.1    General: Electronic structure, important methods of preparation, identification, important reactions, physical properties and uses of alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, nitro compounds, amines, diazonium salts, cyanides and isocyanides.

12.2    Specific: Effect of substituents on alpha-carbon on acid strength, comparative reactivity of acid derivatives, mechanism of nucleophilic addition and dehydration, basic character of amines methods of preparation,  and their separation, importance of diazonium salts in synthetic organic chemistry.

13. Biological , Industrial and Environmental chemistry

13.1    The Cell: Concept of cell and energy cycle.

13.2   Carbohydrates: Classification; Monosaccharides; Structures of pentoses and hexoses; Anomeric carbon; Mutarotation; Simple chemical reactions of glucose, Disaccharides: reducing and non-reducing sugars - sucrose, maltose and lactose; Polysaccharides: elementary idea of structures of starch, cellulose and  glycogen.

13.3    Proteins: Amino acids; Peptide bond; Polypeptides; Primary structure of proteins; Simple idea of secondary , tertiary and quarternary tructures of proteins; Denaturation of proteins and enzymes.

13.4   Nucleic Acids: Types of nucleic acids; Primary building blocks of nucleic acids (chemical composition of DNA  &  RNA);  Primary  structure  of  DNA  and  its  double  helix;  Replication;  Transcription  and  protein synthesis; Genetic code.

13.5    Vitamins: Classification, structure, functions in biosystems; Hormones

13.6     Polymers: Classification of polymers; General methods of polymerization; Molecular mass of polymers; Biopolymers and biodegradable polymers; Free radical, cationic and anionic addition polymerizations; Copolymerization: Natural rubber; Vulcanization of rubber; Synthetic rubbers. Condensation polymers.

13.7    Pollution:   Environmental pollutants; soil, water and air pollution; Chemical reactions in atmosphere; Smog; Major atmospheric pollutants; Acid rain; Ozone and its reactions; Depletion of ozone layer and its effects; Industrial air pollution; Green house effect and global warming; Green Chemistry.

13.8    Chemicals in medicine, health-care and food: Analgesics, Tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, anti- microbials,  anti-fertility  drugs,  antihistamines,  antibiotics,  antacids;  Preservatives,  artificial  sweetening agents, antioxidants, soaps and detergents.

14. Theoretical Principles of Experimental Chemistry

14.1     Volumetric  Analysis:  Principles;  Standard  solutions  of  sodium  carbonate  and  oxalic  acid;  Acid-base titrations; Redox reactions involving KI, H2SO4, Na2SO3, Na2S2O3and H2S; Potassium permanganate in acidic, basic and neutral media; Titrations of oxalic acid, ferrous ammonium sulphate with KMnO4, K2 Cr2O7/Na2S2O3, Cu(II)/Na2S2O3.

14.2     Qualitative analysis of Inorganic Salts: Principles in the determination of the cations Pb2+, Cu2+, As3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+, Fe3+, Ni2+ and the anions CO32-, S2-, SO42-, SO32-, NO2-, NO3-, Cl-, Br-, I-, PO43-, CH3COO-, C2O42-.

14.3    Physical  Chemistry  Experiments:  preparation  and  crystallization  of  alum,  copper  sulphate,  ferrous sulphate, double salt of alum and ferrous sulphate, potassium ferric sulphate; Temperature vs. solubility; pH measurements; Lyophilic and lyophobic sols; Dialysis; Role of emulsifying agents in emulsification. Equilibrium studies involving (i) ferric and thiocyanate ions (ii) [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions; Enthalpy determination for (i) strong acid vs. strong base neutralization reaction (ii) hydrogen bonding interaction between acetone and chloroform; Rates of the reaction between (i) sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid,  (ii) potassium iodate and sodium sulphite  (iii) iodide vs. hydrogen peroxide,    concentration and temperature effects in these reactions.

14.4     Purification  Methods:  Filtration,  crystallization,  sublimation,  distillation,  differential  extraction,  and chromatography.  Principles  of  melting  point  and  boiling  point  determination;  principles  of  paper chromatographic separation – Rf values.

14.5     Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorous and halogens; Detection of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in foodstuff; Detection of alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic, amino groups and unsaturation.

14.6     Quantitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Basic principles for the quantitative estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogen, sulphur and phosphorous; Molecular mass determination by silver salt and chloroplatinate salt methods; Calculations of empirical and molecular formulae.

14.7      Principles of Organic Chemistry Experiments:   Preparation of iodoform, acetanilide, p-nitro acetanilide, di- benzayl acetone, aniline yellow, beta-naphthol; Preparation of acetylene and study of its acidic character.

 English Proficiency

This test is designed to assess the test takers’ general proficiency in the use of English language as a   means of self-expression in real life situations and specifically to test the test takers’ knowledge of basic grammar, their vocabulary, their ability to read fast and comprehend, and also their ability to apply the elements of effective writing.

1. Grammar

1.1          Agreement, Time and Tense, Parallel construction, Relative pronouns

1.2          Determiners, Prepositions, Modals, Adjectives

1.3          Voice, Transformation

1.4          Question tags, Phrasal verbs

2. Vocabulary

2.1          Synonyms, Antonyms, Odd Word, One Word, Jumbled letters, Homophones, Spelling

2.2          Contextual meaning.

2.3          Analogy

3. Reading Comprehension

3.1          Content/ideas

3.2          Vocabulary

3.3          Referents

3.4          Idioms/Phrases

3.5          Reconstruction (rewording)

4. Composition

4.1          Rearrangement

4.2          Paragraph Unity

4.3          Linkers/Connectives

 Logical Reasoning

The test is given to the candidates to judge their power of reasoning spread in verbal and nonverbal areas. The candidates  should  be  able  to  think  logically  so  that  they  perceive  the  data  accurately, understand  the relationships correctly, figure out the missing numbers or words, and to apply rules to new and different contexts. These  indicators  are  measured  through  performance  on  such  tasks  as  detecting  missing  links,  following directions, classifying words, establishing sequences, and completing analogies.

5. Verbal Reasoning

5.1         Analogy

           Analogy means correspondence. In the questions based on analogy, a particular relationship is given and another similar relationship has to be identified from the alternatives provided.

5.2          Classification

               Classification means to assort the items of a given group on the basis of  certain common quality they possess and then spot the odd option out.

5.3          Series Completion

               Here series of numbers or letters are given and one is asked to either complete the series or find out the wrong part in the series.

5.4        Logical Deduction – Reading Passage

              Here a brief passage is given and based on the passage the candidate is required to identify the correct or incorrect logical conclusions.

5.5       Chart Logic

            Here a chart or a table is given that is partially filled in and asks to complete it in accordance with the information given either in the chart /table or in the question.

6. Nonverbal Reasoning

6.1        Pattern Perception

          Here a certain pattern is given and generally a quarter is left blank. The candidate is required to identify the correct quarter from the given four alternatives.

6.2      Figure Formation and Analysis

           The candidate is required to analyze and form a figure from various given parts.

6.3      Paper Cutting

            It involves the analysis of a pattern that is formed when a folded piece of paper is cut into a definite design.

6.4       Figure Matrix

             In this more than one set of figures is given in the form of a matrix, all of them following the same rule. The candidate is required to follow the rule and identify the missing figure.

6.5      Rule Detection

           Here a particular rule is given and it is required to select from the given sets of figures, a set of figures, which obeys the rule and forms the correct series.

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