Manipal Engineering 2018 Syllabus
Manipal University follows 10+2 syllabus follows by major Boards and University of India for its Online Entrance Test. Following syllabus is appicable to BTech, BPharm, PharmD entrance exam. Applicants are advised to go through the full syllabus listed here. It is always better to go through the syllabus before the final preparation. This syllabus contains four sections Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology syllabus are based on the 10+2 Syllabus.
Force and Motion
Work and Energy
Rotational Motion and Rigid Body
Properties of Matter
Heat and Thermodynamics
Oscillations and Waves
Current Electricity and Magnetism
Section-A: Physical Chemistry
1. Basic concepts in Chemistry
2. States of matter
3. Atomic structure
4. Chemical bonding and molecular structure
7. Redox reactions and Electrochemistry
8. Chemical Kinetics
9. Surface chemistry
10. Chemical thermodynamics
Section – B: Inorganic Chemistry
11. Periodic properties
12. Principles and processes of metal extractions
14. S-block elements
15. P-block elements
16. d and f block elements
17. Co-ordination compounds
18. Environmental chemistry
Section – C: Organic Chemistry
19. Purification and characterization of organic compounds
20. Basic principles of organic chemistry
22. Organic compounds containing halogens
23. Organic compounds containing oxygen
24. Organic compounds containing Nitrogen
27. Chemistry in everyday life
28. Principles related to practical chemistry
MATHEMATICS – I
Summation of Finite Series
Theory Of Equations
Limits And Continuity
MATHEMATICS – II
Elements of Number Theory
Matrices and Determinants
Conic Sections (Analytical Geometry)
BIOLOGY – I
GENERAL BIOLOGY TOPICS
Diversity of life on earth
Internal structure of essential parts
Pollination in Angiosperms
The Angiosperm fruit
The Angiosperm seed
Taxonomy and Economic Botany
GENERAL BIOLOGY TOPICS
Introduction to Biology
Origin of life and organic evolution
Diversity of animal life
Study of Morphology
BIOLOGY – II
GENERAL BIOLOGY TOPICS
Plant histology & anatomy
Water relations of plants
Ascent of sap
Loss of water in plants
Translocation of solutes
GENERAL BIOLOGY TOPICS
Deviations from Mendelian laws
Genetic disorders in man
Benefits of biodiversity
Concept of ecosystem sustainability
Man in health and diseases
Body defense and immunity
Microbes and Man
Continuity of life
Manipal Engineering Preparatory Course
Manipal Engineering Model Papers
Manipal Engineering Achievers Physics
Manipal Engineering Achievers Chemistry
Manipal Engineering Achievers Mathematics
Physical quantities, Units, dimensions, errors in measurement; significant figures. dimensional analysis and error analysis.
Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity time and position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment). Concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.
Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity. Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane – rectangular components. Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration – projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.
Force and Motion
Newton’s first law of motion Force and Inertia; momentum and Newton’s second
law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications. Equilibrium of concurrent forces.
Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.
Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).
Work and Energy
Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power. Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
Rotational Motion and Rigid Body
Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod. Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples. Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear
and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moment of inertia for simple geometrical objects. Parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.
The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.
Properties of Matter
Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poisson’s ratio; elastic energy.
Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes). Effect of gravity on fluid pressure. Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.
Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
Heat and Thermodynamics
Temperature, thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv – calorimetry; change of state – latent heat. Heat transfer – conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation. Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation, Wein’s displacement law, and Green House effect. Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law.
Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature. Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes. Second law of thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.
Kinetic Theory of Gases: Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. Assumptions of kinetic theory of gases, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy and application
to heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro’s number.
Oscillations and Waves
Periodic motion – period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring – restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM – kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum – derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance. Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect.
Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law – force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long
straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipoles in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator.
Current Electricity and Magnetism
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, VI-characteristics of ohmic and non-ohmic conductors, electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff ’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Potentiometer – principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot – Savart law and its application to current
carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current carrying conductors – definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer – its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations, LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current. AC generator and transformer.
Need for displacement current. Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of light – blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia and hypermetropia) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts.
Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.
Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation – particle nature of light. Matter waves – wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment .
Alpha – particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels,
hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity – alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission and fusion.
Energy bands in solids, conductors, insulators and semiconductors;
semiconductor diode – IV-characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; IV- characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.
Elements of a communication system; bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of an amplitude-modulated wave.
Familiarity with the basic approach and observations of the experiments and activities:
Experiments based on use of vernier calipers and micrometer screw gauge
Determination of g using simple pendulum
Young’s modulus by Searle’s method
Specific heat of a liquid using calorimeter
Focal length of a concave mirror and a convex lens using uv-method,
Speed of sound using resonance column
Verification of Ohm’s law using voltmeter and ammeter, and specific resistance of the material of a wire using meter bridge and post office box.
Section-A: Physical Chemistry
1. Basic concepts in Chemistry: Matter and its nature, Dalton’s atomic theory, concept of atom, molecule, element and compound. Laws of chemical combination, Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept and Avogadro number, molar mass, vapour density-definition. Relationship between molecular mass and vapour density. Concept of STP conditions, gram molar volume, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae, chemical equations and numerical problems in all these concepts, stoichiometry.
2. States of matter: Classification of matter – Solid, liquid and gaseous states
Gaseous state: Gas laws – Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, Graham’s law of diffusion, Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s law of partial pressures, Gay Lussac’s Law of combining volumes, concept of absolute temperature scale, Ideal gas equation, kinetic theory of gases – postulates, concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities, Expressions for r.m.s velocity and kinetic energy from the kinetic gas equation. Numerical problems. Ideal and real gases, Ideal gas equation, value of R (SI units). Deviation of real gases from the ideal behaviour. PV-P curves. Causes for the deviation of real gases from ideal behavior. Derivation of Van der Waal’s equation and interpretation of PV-P curves
Liquid state: Properties of liquids – vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension, effect of temp. on them.
Solid state: classifications of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids, Bragg’s law and its applications, Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices) voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids, electrical and magnetic properties.
3. Atomic structure
Introduction – constituents of atoms, their charge and mass.
Atomic number and atomic mass. Wave nature of light, Electromagnetic spectrum-emission spectrum of hydrogen-Lyman series, Balmer series, Paschen series, Brackett series and Pfund series. Rydberg’s equation. Numerical problems involving calculation of wavelength and wave numbers of lines in the hydrogen spectrum. Atomic model- Bohr’s theory, (derivation of equation for energy and radius not required). Explanation of origin of lines in hydrogen spectrum. Limitations of Bohr’s theory. Dual nature of electron – distinction between a particle and a wave. de Broglie’s Theory. Matter-wave equation (derivation). Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle (Qualitative). Quantum numbers – n, l, m and s and their significance and inter relationships. Concept of orbital – shapes of s, p and d orbitals. Pauli’s exclusion principle and Aufbau principle. Energy level diagram and (n+1) rule. Electronic configuration of elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 54, extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals. Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity.
4. Chemical bonding and molecular structure: Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds.
Ionic bonding: formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds, calculation of lattice enthalpy.
Covalent bonding: valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules, molecular orbital theory (MOT) – linear combination of atomic orbitals (Qualitative approach), energy level diagram, rules for filling molecular orbitals, bonding and anti-bonding molecular orbitals, bond order, electronic configuration of H2, Li2 and O2 Non-existence of He2 and paramagnetism of O2.
Metallic bonding: Electron gas theory (Electron Sea model), definition of metallic bond, correlation of metallic properties with nature of metallic bond using electron gas theory.
Hydrogen bonding – inter and intra molecular, properties.
5. Solutions: Methods of expressing concentration of solutions – ppm, molarity, molality, normality, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and wt.), Principles of volumetric analysis- standard solution, titrations and indicators-acid-base (phenolphthalein and methyl orange) and redox (Diphenylamine) numerical problems. Vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s law, Ideal and non-ideal solutions, colligative properties of dilute solutions – relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point, osmotic pressure, calculation of mol. wt of a solute using colligative properties, van’t Hoff factor and its significance.
6. Equilibrium: Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium.
Equilibrium involving physical processes: solid – liquid, liquid – gas and solid – gas equilibria, Henry’s law, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes.
Equilibrium involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, significance of ∆G and ∆G” in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium, concentration, pressure, temp., effect of catalyst, Le Chatelier’s principle.
Ionic equilibrium: Electrolytes and non-electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, Electrolysis -Faraday’s Laws of electrolysis, numerical problems. Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation, Merits and limitations. Specific conductivity and molar conductivity – definitions and units. Strong and weak electrolytes with examples. Factors affecting the conductivity. Acid – Base theories (Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis) and their limitations, acid-base equilibria, ionization constants, Strengths of Acids and Bases – dissociation constants of weak acids and weak bases. Ostwald’s dilution law for weak electrolytes (eq. derivation) – expression for hydrogen ion concentration of weak acid and hydroxyl ion concentration of weak base – numerical problems. Ionic product of water, pH concept and pH scale. pKa and pKb values – numerical problems. Buffers, types of buffers, mechanism of buffer action, Henderson’s equation for pH of a buffer (derivation), preparation of buffers of required pH -numerical problems. Common ion effect, solubility, expression for Ksp of sparingly soluble salts of types AB, AB2. Relationship between solubility and solubility product of salts of types AB, AB2. Applications of common ion effect and solubility product in qualitative analysis, numerical problems.
7. Redox reactions and Electrochemistry: Electronic concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions, Electrode potential – Definition, factors affecting single electrode potential, Standard electrode potential, Nernst’s equation for calculating single electrode potential, construction of electro-chemical cells, Daniel cell, free energy change during cell reactions (∆G). Reference electrodes – Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE) – construction, use of SHE for determination of SRP of other single electrodes and pH of solutions, Limitations of SHE. Electrochemical series and its applications, galvanic and electrolytic cells, half-cell and cell reactions, emf of a galvanic cell and its measurement, Nernst eq. and its applications, working principles of dry cell, lead acid cell and H2-O2 fuel cell.
8. Chemical Kinetics: Introduction, commercial importance of rate studies, Order of a reaction, factors deciding the order of a reaction-relative concentrations of the reactants and mechanism of the reaction. First order reaction – eq. for rate constant derivation, units. Half-life period, relation between half-life period and order of a reaction, numerical problems. Determination of the order of a reaction by the graphical and the Ostwald’s isolation method. Zero order, fractional order and pseudo first order reactions with illustrations. Effect of temperature on the rate of a reaction, temperature coefficient of a reaction. Arrhenius interpretation of the energy of activation and temperature dependence of the rate of reaction. Arrhenius Equation. Influence of catalyst on energy profile. Numerical problems on energy of activation.
9. Surface chemistry:
Adsorption: Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions
Catalysis: Homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis and its mechanism.
Colloids: Introduction, colloidal system and particle sizes. Types of colloidal systems, Lyophilic and lyophobic sols, examples and differences. Preparation of sols by Bredig’s arc method and peptisation. Purification of sols – dialysis and electro dialysis. Properties of sols – Tyndall effect, Brownian movement electrophoresis, origin of charge, coagulation, Hardy and Schulze rule, Protective action of sols. Gold number, Gold number of gelatin and starch. Applications of colloids. Emulsions and their characteristics.
10. Chemical thermodynamics: Spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, criteria for spontaneity – tendency to attain a state of minimum energy and maximum randomness. Entropy – a measure of randomness, change in entropy, unit of entropy. Entropy and spontaneity. Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs’ free energy as a driving force of a reaction, Gibbs’ equation, prediction of feasibility of a process in terms of ∆G, standard free energy change and its relation to Kp. Numerical problems.
Section – B: Inorganic Chemistry
11. Periodic properties: Periodic table – periods and groups. Modern periodic law and present form of periodic table, s,p,d and f block elements, atomic radii (Van der Waal and covalent) and ionic radii, comparison of size of cation and anion with the parent atom, size of isoelectronic ions. Ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity- definition with illustrations, Fajan’s rules. Variations of atomic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity down the group and along the period and their interpretation.
12. Principles and processes of metal extractions: Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores, steps involved in the extraction of metals – concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic) and refining with reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe. Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals.
13. Hydrogen: isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen. Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water, structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide, classification of hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial, hydrogen as a fuel.
14. S-block elements: general introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships. Preparation and properties of NaOH and NaHCO3. Industrial use of lime, limestone, plaster of paris and cement, biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.
15. P-block elements: General electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and groups, unique behavior of first element in each group.
Group 13: Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminum, structure, properties and uses of borax, boric acid, diborane, boron trifluride, aluminum chloride and alums.
Group 14: Tendency for catenation, structure, properties and uses of allotropes and oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride, silicates, zeolites and silicones.
Group 15: properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus, allotropic forms of phosphorus, preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides (PCl3, PCl5), structures of oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorus.
Group 16: Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone, allotropic forms of sulphur, preparation, properties, structure and uses of sulphuric acid, structures of oxoacids of sulphur.
Group 17: Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid, trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides, structures of interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.
Group 18: Occurrence and uses of noble gases, isolation of rare gases by Ramsay and Raleigh’s method and separation of individual gases from noble gas mixture (Dewar’s charcoal adsorption method). Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.
16. d and f block elements: Transition elements, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of 3d series – electronic configurations, size, variable oxidation states, colour, magnetic properties, catalytic behaviour, complex formation, interstitial compounds and alloy formation. Preparation, properties and uses of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Lanthanoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids: Electronic configuration and oxidation states.
17. Co-ordination compounds: Werner’s theory – ligands, co-ordination number, denticity, chelation, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds, isomerism, bonding – valence bond approach. Importance of co-ordination compounds in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems.
18. Environmental chemistry:
Environmental pollution – atmospheric, water and soil
Atmospheric pollution – tropospheric and stratospheric
Tropospheric pollutants – gaseous pollutants: oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons, their sources, harmful effects and prevention. Green house effect and global warming, acid rain.
Particulate pollutants – smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist, their sources, harmful effects and prevention
Stratospheric pollution – formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer, its mechanism and effects.
Water pollution – major pollutants such as pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants, their harmful effects and prevention.
Soil pollution – major pollutants such as pesticides (insecticides, herbicides and fungiecides) their harmful effects and prevention.
Stratagies to control environmental pollution.
Section – C: Organic Chemistry
19. Purification and characterization of organic compounds:
Purification: crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography – principles and their applications
Qualitative analysis – detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens
Quantitative analysis – basic principles involved in the estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur and phosphorus.
Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae, numerical problems in org. quantitative analysis.
20. Basic principles of organic chemistry: Tetravalency of carbon, shapes of simple molecules – hybridization (s and p), classification of organic compounds based on functional groups, compounds containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. Homologues series, isomerism – structural and stereoisomerism.
Nomenclature: covalent bond fission – homolytic and heterolytic, free radicals, carbocations and carbanions. Stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond: Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation
Types of organic reactions: Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement.
21. Hydrocarbons: classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions
Alkanes: conformers, Sawhorse and Newman projections of ethane, mechanism of halogenation of alkanes
Alkenes: Geometrical isomerism, mechanism of electrophilic addition, addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides – Markownikoff’s and peroxide effect, ozonolysis and polymerization.
Alkynes: Acidic character, addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides, polymerization.
Aromatic hydrocarbons: Nomenclature, benzene – structure and aromaticity, mechanism of electrophilic substitution, halogenation, nitration, Friedel – Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene.
22. Organic compounds containing halogens: General methods of preparation, properties and reactions. Nature of C-X bond, mechanisms of substitution reactions, uses, environmental effects of chloroform, iodoform, freons and DDT.
23. Organic compounds containing oxygen: General methods of preparation, properties and reactions.
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers:
Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration
Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions, halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer – Tiemann reaction.
Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group, nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones, important reactions such as nucleophilic addition (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives), Grignard reagents, oxidation, reduction (Wolf Kishner and Clemmnesen), acidity of α–hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction, chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones.
Carboxylic acids: Acidic strength and factors affecting it.
24. Organic compounds containing Nitrogen: General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Diazonium salts: importance in synthetic organic chemistry
25. Polymers: General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization – addition and condensation, copolymerization, natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization, some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses – polyethylene, nylon 6,6; polyester and bakelite.
26. Biomolecuels: general introduction and importance of biomolecules
Carbohydrates: Classification – aldoses and ketoses, monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose and maltose)
Proteins: Elementary idea of amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptide, proteins – primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary, denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
Vitamins: Classification and functioning
Nucleic acids – chemical constitution of DNA and RNA, biological functions of nucleic acids.
27. Chemistry in everyday life:
Chemicals in medicine – Analgesics, tranqilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamins – their meaning and common examples
Chemicals in food – Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, common examples
Cleansing agents – Soaps and detergents, cleansing action
28. Principles related to practical chemistry:
Detection of extra elements (N, S, halogens) in organic compounds, detection of the functional groups – hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds
Chemistry involved in the titrimetric exercises: Acid – Base titrations, use of indicators, Redox titrations and their indicators
Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis: Cations – Pb2+, Cu2+, Al3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+; Anions – CO32−, S2−, SO42−, NO3−, NO2−, Cl−, Br− and I−.
MATHEMATICS – I
Rational functions, proper and improper fractions, reduction of improper fractions as a sum of a polynomial and a proper fraction. Rules of resolving a rational function into partial fractions in which denominator contains
(i) Linear distinct factors, (ii) Linear repeated factors, (iii) Non repeated non factorable quadratic factors [problems limited to evaluation of three constants].
(i) Definition Of logarithm
(ii) Indices leading to logarithms and vice versa
(iii) Laws with proofs:
(d) (change of base rule)
(iv) Common Logarithm: Characteristic and mantissa; use of logarithmic tables, problems theorem
(i) Recapitulation of the th terms of an AP and a GP which are required to find the general term of the series
(ii) Principle of mathematical induction proofs of
By mathematical induction
Sample problems on mathematical induction
SUMMATION OF FINITE SERIES
(i) Summation of series using
(ii) Arithmetico-Geometric series
(iii) Method of differences (when differences of successive terms are in AP)
(iv) By partial fractions
THEORY OF EQUATIONS
(i) FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF ALGEBRA: An th degree equation has roots (without proof)
(ii) Solution of the equation . Introducing square roots, cube roots and fourth roots of unity
(iii) Cubic and biquadratic equations, relations between the roots and the coefficients. Solutions of cubic and biquadratic equations given certain conditions
(iv) Concept of synthetic division (without proof) and problems. Solution of equations by finding an integral root between and by inspection and then using synthetic division.
Irrational and complex roots occur in conjugate pairs (without proof). Problems based on this result in solving cubic and biquadratic equations.
Permutation and Combinations:
Recapitulation of and and proofs of
(i) general formulae for and
(1) Statement and proof of the Binomial theorem for a positive integral index by induction. Problems to find the middle term(s), terms independent of and term containing a definite power of .
(2) Binomial coefficient – Proofs of
Proposition and truth values, connectives, their truth tables, inverse, converse, contrapositive of a proposition, tautology and contradiction, logical equivalence – standard theorems, examples from switching circuits, truth tables, problems.
1. Co-ordinate system
(i) Rectangular co-ordinate system in a plane (Cartesian)
(ii) Distance formula, section formula and mid-point formula, centroid of a triangle, area of a triangle – derivations and problems.
(iii) Locus of a point. Problems.
2. Straight line
(i) Straight line: Slope of a line, where is the angle made by the line with the positive -axis, slope of the line joining any two points, general equation of a line – derivation and problems.
(ii) Conditions for two lines to be (i) parallel, (ii) perpendicular. Problems.
(iii) Different forms of the equation of a straight line: (a) slope-point form (b) slope-intercept form (c) two points form
(d) intercept form and (e) normal form – derivation; Problems.
(iv) Angle between two lines, point of intersection of two lines, condition for concurrency of three lines. Length of the perpendicular from the origin and from any point to a line. Equations of the internal and external bisectors of the angle between two lines – Derivations and problems.
3. Pair of straight lines
Pair of lines, homogenous equations of second degree. General equation of second degree. Derivation of (1) condition for pair of lines (2) conditions for pair of parallel lines, perpendicular lines and distance between the pair of parallel lines. (3) Condition for pair of coincidence lines and (4) Angle and point of intersection of a pair of lines.
LIMITS AND CONTINUTY
(1) Limit of a function – definition and algebra of limits.
(2) Standard limits (with proofs)
(i) ( rational)
(ii) and ( in radians)
(3) Statement of limits (without proofs):
Problems on limits
(4) Evaluation of limits which take the form [ form] [ form] where . Problems.
(5) Continuity: Definitions of left-hand and right-hand limits and continuity. Problems.
Measurement of Angles and Trigonometric Functions
Radian measure – definition. Proofs of:
(i) radian is constant
(ii) radians =
(iii) where is in radians
(iv) Area of the sector of a circle is given by where is in radians. Problems
Trigonometric functions – definition, trigonometric ratios of an acute angle, Trigonometric identities (with proofs) – Problems. Trigonometric functions of standard angles. Problems. Heights and distances – angle of elevation, angle of depression, Problems. Trigonometric functions of allied angles, compound angles, multiple angles, submultiple angles and Transformation formulae (with proofs). Problems. Graphs of , and .
Relations between sides and angles of a triangle
Sine rule, Cosine rule, Tangent rule, Half-angle formulae, Area of a triangle, projection rule (with proofs). Problems. Solution of triangles given (i) three sides, (ii) two sides and the included angle, (iii) two angles and a side, (iv) two sides and the angle opposite to one of these sides. Problems.
MATHEMATICS – II
ELEMENTS OF NUMBER THEORY
(i) Divisibility – Definition and properties of divisibility; statement of division algorithm.
(ii) Greatest common divisor (GCD) of any two integers using Euclid’s algorithm to find the GCD of any two integers. To express the GCD of two integers and as for integers and . Problems.
(iii) Relatively prime numbers, prime numbers and composite numbers, the number of positive divisors of a number and sum of all positive division of a number – statements of the formulae without proofs. Problems.
(iv) Proofs of the following properties:
(1) the smallest divisor () of an integer () is a prime number
(2) there are infinitely many primes
(3) if and are relatively prime and then
(4) if is prime and then or
(5) if there exist integers and such that then
(6 if , then
(7) if is prime and is any integer then either or
(8) the smallest positive divisor of a composite number does not exceed
(i) Definition of vector as a directed line segment, magnitude and direction of a vector, equal vectors, unit vector, position vector of point, problems.
(ii) Two- and three-dimensional vectors as ordered pairs and ordered triplets respectively of real numbers, components of a vector, addition, subtraction, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, problems.
(iii) Position vector of the point dividing a given line segment in a given ratio.
(iv) Scalar (dot) product and vector (cross) product of two vectors.
(v) Section formula, mid-point formula and centroid.
(vi) Direction cosines, direction ratios, proof of and problems.
(vii) Application of dot and cross products to the area of a parallelogram, area of a triangle, orthogonal vectors and projection of one vector on another vector, problems.
(viii) Scalar triple product, vector triple product, volume of a parallelepiped; conditions for the coplanarity of 3 vectors and coplanarity of 4 points.
(ix) Proofs of the following results by the vector method:
(a) diagonals of parallelogram bisect each other
(b) angle in a semicircle is a right angle
(c) medians of a triangle are concurrent; problems
(d) sine, cosine and projection rules
(e) proofs of
2. cos(A +/- B) = cosA cosB -/+ sinA sinB
MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
(i) Recapitulation of types of matrices; problems
(ii) Determinant of square matrix, defined as mappings and . Properties of determinants including , Problems.
(iii) Minor and cofactor of an element of a square matrix, adjoint, singular and non-singular matrices, inverse of a matrix. Proof of and hence the formula for . Problems.
(iv) Solution of a system of linear equations in two and three variables by (1) Matrix method, (2) Cramer’s rule. Problelms.
(i) Definition, equation of a circle with centre and radius r and with centre and radius . Equation of a circle with and as the ends of a diameter, general equation of a circle, its centre and radius – derivations of all these, problems.
(ii) Equation of the tangent to a circle – derivation; problems. Condition for a line to be the tangent to the circle – derivation, point of contact and problems.
(iii) Length of the tangent from an external point to a circle – derivation, problems
(iv) Power of a point, radical axis of two circles, Condition for a point to be inside or outside or on a circle – derivation and problems. Poof of the result “the radical axis of two circles is straight line perpendicular to the line joining their centres”. Problems.
(v) Radical centre of a system of three circles – derivation, Problems.
(vi) Orthogonal circles – derivation of the condition. Problems
CONIC SECTIONS (ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY)
Definition of a conic
Equation of parabola using the focus directrix property (standard equation of parabola) in the form ; other forms of parabola (without derivation), equation of parabola in the parametric form; the latus rectum, ends and length of latus rectum. Equation of the tangent and normal to the parabola at a point (both in the Cartesian form and the parametric form) (1) derivation of the condition for the line to be a tangent to the parabola, and the point of contact. (2) The tangents drawn at the ends of a focal chord of a parabola intersect at right angles on the directrix – derivation, problems.
Equation of ellipse using focus, directrix and eccentricity – standard equation of ellipse in the form and other forms of ellipse (without derivations). Equation of ellipse in the parametric form and auxilliary circle. Latus rectum: ends and the length of latus rectum. Equation of the tangent and the normal to the ellipse at a point (both in the Cartesian form and the parametric form)
Derivations of the following: (1) Condition for the line to be a tangent to the ellipse at and finding the point of contact (2) Sum of the focal distances of any point on the ellipse is equal to the major axis (3) The locus of the point of intersection of perpendicular tangents to an ellipse is a circle (director circle)
Equation of hyperbola using focus, directrix and eccentricity – standard equation hyperbola in the form Conjugate hyperbola and other forms of hyperbola (without derivations). Equation of hyperbola in the parametric form and auxiliary circle. The latus rectum; ends and the length of latus rectum. Equations of the tangent and the normal to the hyperbola at a point (both in the Cartesian from and the parametric form). Derivations of the following results: (1) Condition for the line to be tangent to the hyperbola and the point of contact. (2) Difference of the focal distances of any point on a hyperbola is equal to its transverse axis. (3) The locus of the point of intersection of perpendicular tangents to a hyperbola is a circle (director circle) (4) Asymptotes of the hyperbola (5) Rectangular hyperbola (6) If and are eccentricities of a hyperbola and its conjugate then
(i) Definition of a complex number as an ordered pair, real and imaginary parts, modulus and amplitude of a complex number, equality of complex numbers, algebra of complex numbers, polar form of a complex number. Argand diagram. Exponential form of a complex number. Problems.
(ii) De Moivre’s theorem – statement and proof, method of finding square roots, cube roots and fourth roots of a complex number and their representation in the Argand diagram. Problems.
(i) Differentiability, derivative of function from first principles, Derivatives of sum and difference of functions, product of a constant and a function, constant, product of two functions, quotient of two functions from first principles. Derivatives of , , , , , , , , , from first principles, problems.
(ii) Derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions.
(iii) Differentiation of composite functions – chain rule, problems.
(iv) Differentiation of inverse trigonometric functions by substitution, problems.
(v) Differentiation of implicit functions, parametric functions, a function w.r.t another function, logarithmic differentiation, problems.
(vi) Successive differentiation – problems upto second derivatives.
Applications Of Derivatives
(i) Geometrical meaning of , equations of tangent and normal, angle between two curves. Problems.
(ii) Subtangent and subnormal. Problems.
(iii) Derivative as the rate measurer. Problems.
(iv) Maxima and minima of a function of a single variable – second derivative test. Problems.
Inverse Trigonometric Functions
(i) Definition of inverse trigonometric functions, their domain and range. Derivations of standard formulae. Problems.
(ii) Solutions of inverse trigonometric equations. Problems.
General Solutions Of Trigonometric Equations
General solutions of , , , , – derivations. Problems.
Statement of the fundamental theorem of integral calculus (without proof). Integration as the reverse process of differentiation. Standarad formulae. Methods of integration, (1) substitution, (2) partial fractions, (3) integration by parts. Problems. (4) Problems on integrals of: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
(i) Evaluation of definite integrals, properties of definite integrals, problems.
(ii) Application of definite integrals – Area under a curve, area enclosed between two curves using definite integrals, standard areas like those of circle, ellipse. Problems.
Definitions of order and degree of a differential equation, Formation of a first order differential equation, Problems. Solution of first order differential equations by the method of separation of variables, equations reducible to the variable separable form. General solution and particular solution. Problems.
Elementary counting, Basic probability theory, conditional probability, Independence, Total probability theorem, Bayes Theorem.
Inequalities related to Arithmetic Mean, Geometric Mean and Harmonic Mean
BIOLOGY – I
GENERAL BIOLOGY TOPICS
Biosystematics: Introduction – Need, history and types of classification (Artificial, Natural and Phylogenetic) , Species concept, Binomial nomenclature with examples, Rules and advantages of binomial nomenclature. Linnaean hierarchy – Kingdom to species with examples (Cocos nucifera and Homo sapiens). The five – kingdom system of classification in detail – General characters of kingdoms Monera, Protista, Mycota, Metaphyta and Metazoa, Lichens.
Cell Biology: Cell structure: Structure and functions of cell components – cell wall, plasma membrane (fluid mosaic model), endoplasmic reticulum, plastids (brief), mitochondria (brief), Golgi complex, Ribosomes, Lysosomes, Centrosome, vacuole and nucleus – nuclear envelope (nuclear pores and nuclear lamina) nucleoplasm, nucleolus and chromatin. A brief account of ergastic substances (mention about reserve food, secretory and excretory substances with examples). Differences between plant cell and animal cell. Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centriole.
Chromosomes: Discovery, shape, size and number of chromosomes, Autosomes and allosomes; Karyotype and idiogram. Chemical composition and function. General structure – Concept of centromere (primary constriction), secondary constriction, satellite, kinetochore, telomere. Types of chromosomes based on the position of centromere. Ultrastructural organization of the eukaryotic chromosome – nucleosome model. Numerical aspects of chromosomes: A brief note on aneuploidy (monosomy and trisomy) and euploidy (haploidy, diploidy and polyploidy).
Cell Reproduction: Cell division and types. Concept of cell cycle. Mitotic division and significance.
Meiotic division and its significance. Cancer – meaning of cancer, benign and malignant tumours, characters of cancer cells, types of cancer (Carcinoma, Sarcoma, Lymphoma and Leukemia), causes of cancer (physical, chemical and biological carcinogens with examples). Concept of cell senescence and apoptosis (programmed cell death).
Diversity of life on earth: Kingdom Monera and other simple living forms – Prions and Viroids: Concept of prions and viroids – definition, discovery, chemical nature with one example of disease each – Creutzfeldt – Jacob disease (CJD) and Potato spindle tuber disease (PSTV).
Viruses: Introduction – living and non-living properties of viruses. Types of viruses – Plant viruses, Animal viruses, Bacterial viruses, DNA viruses and RNA viruses (Only definitions with examples to include the following – Viral disease in plants – Tobacco Mosaic, Cauliflower Mosaic, Potato Mottle, Leaf Mosaic of tomato and Banana Bunchy Top; viral diseases in animals-Rabies, Dog distemper, Viral diseases in man-Japanese Encephalitis, common cold, Poliomyelitis, Hepatitis-B, Herpes, AIDS and Conjunctivitis). Structure of T4 Bacteriophage, multiplication of T4 phage (Lytic cycle only).
Bacteria: Introduction. Classification of bacteria based on mode of nutrition (Heterotrophic bacteria – parasitic, saprophytic and sumbiotic – and Autotrophic bacteria – photosynthetic and chemosynthetic; definition and one example for each group). Ultrastructure of the bacterial cell. Reproduction in bacteria – asexual reproduction by binary fission, endospore formation and sexual mechanism (genetic recombination in bacteria – transduction, transformation and conjugation with details of HFR conjugation only). Importance of bacteria (i) Beneficial aspects – Scavenging, Fermentation, Retting, Antibiotics, Ecological importance, Importance in Genetic engineering and Importance in mineral extraction. (ii) Harmful aspects (iii) Food spoilage and food poisoning. Bacterial diseases – Brief and introductory information on the following diseases: Citrus canker, Anthrax, Typhoid, Pneumonia, Cholera, Gastric ulcer, Tuberculosis and Syphilis (details of treatment are not required). (iv) A brief introduction on Archaea and their importance.
Cyanobacteria: Introduction. Structure and reproduction of Nostoc. Differences between bacteria and Cyanobacteria. Importance of Cyanobacteria.
Kingdom Protista: General characters. Mentioning the following divisions with suitable examples – Chrysophyta (Diatoms), Euglenophyta (Euglena) and Protozoa. Taxonomic position of Algae with reference to the five-kingdom classification. Importance of Algae (in brief).
Kingdom Mycota: The Fungi: General characters of Fungi. Mentioning divisions with suitable examples. Zygomycota – Rhizopus: Ascomycota – Saccharomyces; Basidiomycota – Agaricus; Duteromycota – Cercospora. Importance of Fungi; A brief account of mushroom culturing (paddy straw mushroom culturing).
Kingdom Metaphyta: Bryophyta: General characters of Bryophytes. Mentioning classes with suitable examples – Hepaticopsida – Riccia; Anthocerotopsida – Anthoceros; Bryopsida – Funaria.
Pteridophyta: General characters of Pteridophytes. Mentioning classes with suitable examples – Psilotopsida – Psilotum; Lycopsida – Selaginella; Sphenopsida – Equisetum; Pteropsida – Nephrolepis.
Gymnosperms: General characters of Gymnosperms. Mentioning classes with suitable examples – Cycadopsida – Cycas; Coniferopsida – Pinus; Gnetopsida – Gnetum.
Angiosperms: General characters of angiosperms – Typical dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants (Brassica and Grass) and difference between dicotyledons and monocotyledons. Study of the Angiosperm flower. Technical terms used in description of flower – Actinomorphic, Zygomorphic, Unisexual, Bisexual, Pedicellate, Sessile, Bracteate, Ebracteate, Homochlamydeous, Heterochlamydeous. Complete flower, Incomplete flower, Epigynous, Hypogynous and Perigynous flowers. The parts of the flower:
a) Accessory whorls
(i) Concept of perianth
(ii) Calyx – polysepalous and gamosepalous condition with one example each.
(iii) Corolla – Polypetalous and Gamopetalous condition.
(iv) Aestivation – definition and types – Valvate, Imbricate and Twisted types with one example each.
b) Essential whorls:
(i) Androecium – parts of a stamen, adelphy, syngeny, synandry and epipetaly. Anther lobes – monothecous and dithecous conditions with one example each.
(ii) Gynoecium – part of gynoecium, concept of carpel, Types of gynoecium – apocarpous and syncarpous gynoecium. Types of gynoecium based on number of carpels – monocarpellary, bicarpellary, tricarpellary and multicarpellary conditions.Nature of ovary of gynoecium with reference to locule – unilocular, bilocular, trilocular and multilocular conditions. Placentation – definition, types – marginal, axile, basal and parietal.
Internal structure of essential parts: a) T.S of mature anther and structure of the pollen grain (Microsporogenesis not needed) b) Structure of a mature anatropous ovule (Megasporogenesis not needed).
Pollination in Angiosperms: Definition, self and cross pollination, types (Autogamy, Allogamy, Geitonogamy, Xenogamy, Cleistogamy, Homogamy). Agents (Anemophily, Zoophily – Entomophily – Ornithophily and Hydrophily) with examples. (Pollination mechanisms not needed).
Fertilization in Angiosperms: Definition, a brief account of double fertilization and its significance (Embryogeny not required).
The Angiosperm fruit: Definition, types of fruits – Simple fruits – fleshy fruits (drupe and berry),
Dry fruits (capsule, cypsela and cremocarp) and Pome (apple). Aggregate fruits – etaerio of follicles. Multiple fruits – Sorosis.
The Angiosperm seed: Concept of seed. A typical dicotyledonous seed (Example: Bean seed). A typical monocotyledonous seed (Example: Maize grain).
Taxonomy and Economic Botany: Taxonomy: An outline of classification system of Engler and Prantl. Distinguishing characters and plants of economic interest of the following families of angiosperms.
Fabaceae- (garden pea, gram, soyabean)
Solanaceae- ( Solanum nigrum, ashwagandha, brinjal, tomato, tobacco)
Liliaceae- (onion,tulip,colchicum )
Economic Botany: Introduction. Oil yielding plants – Groundnut and Sunflower. Cereals and millets – Rice and Jowar. Pulses – Pigeon pea and Bengal gram. Medicinal plants – Adathoda vasica, Ephedra gerardiana, Dryopteris, Santalum album, Gymnema sylvestre, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus emblica. Spices – Pepper, cloves and cardamom. Beverages – Coffee, cocoa and tea. (Mentioning scientific names, family, parts used and uses only).
GENERAL BIOLOGY TOPICS
Introduction to Biology: Definition of Biology and its main branches – Botany and Zoology. Scope of Biology. Branches of Biology (definition only). Classical branches – morphology, cytology, histology, anatomy, physiology, developmental biology, biosystamatics, genetics, ecology, organic evolution and palaeontology. Interdisciplinary branches – biophysics, biochemistry and biostatistics. Applied branches and career prospects – agriculture, entomology,silviculture, pathology, apiculture, microbiology and bioinformatics. Role of biology in dispelling myths and disbeliefs.
Biomolecules: Carbohydrates: Definition. Classification – monosaccharides (ribose, deoxyribose, glucose, fructose and galactose), oligosaccharides (maltose, sucrose and lactose) and polysaccharides (starch, glycogen, cellulose, pectin, chitin and agar agar). Biological significance.
Proteins: Definition. Classification – simple proteins (albumins, globulins, histones, actin, myosin and keratin), conjugate proteins – Chromoproteins (haemoglobin), glycoproteins (mucin of saliva), phospoproteins (casein of milk) and lipoproteins (lipovitelline of egg yolk). Biological significance of amino acid and proteins.
Lipids: Definition. Classification – Simple lipids – oils (vegetable oil and oil of animal origin), fats (butter) and waxes (beeswax), Compound lipids – phospholipids (lecithin and cephalin) and sphingolipids (cerebrosides),Related compounds – steroids (estrogen, progesterone and testosterone), sterols (cholesterol) and prostaglandins. Biological significance.
Enzymes: Definition, properties, classification based on functions. Mode of action – induced fit theory of Koshland.
Nucleic acid: Occurrence, basic chemical composition (nucleoside and nucleotide), mention of type (DNA and RNA) and functions (structural details are not required). [*Note: Details of chemical structure of biomolecules are not required].
Origin of life and organic evolution: Origin of life: Introduction. Concept of abiogenesis and biogenesis (experimental evidences not required).A.I.Oparin’s Theory of chemical evolution of life (Views of Haldane and Sidney Fox to be mentioned). Stanley Miller’s experiment in support of chemical evolution. Divergent and convergent evolution. Evolution of man.
Organic evolution: Introduction. Darwin’s Theory (DDT resistance in mosquitoes and industrial melanism in Peppered moth, to illustrate natural selection to be quoted as examples). Brief account of Mutation Theory. Neo Darwininism – Introduction, Darwinian concept vs Neo Darwinian concept (gene pool and gene frequency), Hardy – Weinberg Law and sources of variations as evolutionary force – sexual reproduction, genetic drift, gene flow, mutation and isolation (reproductive and geographic).
Diversity of animal life: Introduction. Outline classification of kingdom Animalia (only the major phyla to be considered). Major animal phyla: Outline classification as treated in ‘A Manual of Zoology’ Vol. I and Vol. II (1971) by Ekambarantha Ayyar. Non-chordata (animals without backbone) – General characters and classification up to classes (salient features of classes of Invertebrate phyla not to be given) with suitable examples of the following phyla: Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca and Echinodermata. Chordata (Animals with backbone) – Fundamental characters and classification of chordata up to subphyla – Hemichordata, Urochordata, Cephalochordata and Vertebrata with suitable examples. Subphylum Vertebrata – Salient features with examples of (i) Subphylum Pisces: Class Chondreichthyes and Class Osteichthyes); (ii) Superclass Tetrapoda: Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia. Differences between non-chordates and chordates.
Study of Morphology: Cockroach – Periplaneta sp. Morphology (Structure of head capsule and compound eye not required).Digestive and nervous systems.
Aquaculture: Definition. Areas – fin fisheries and shell fisheries. Pisciculture: definition, capture fisheries and culture fisheries. Inland fisheries – procedure. Monoculture, monosex culture and polyculture (composite fish farming) – meaning with examples.
Dairy: Animal husbandry, Definition, Types of indigenous cattle with examples based on utility – draught, milching and dual purpose (Cow breeds – Sindhi, Sahiwal, Amrithmahal, Hallikar, Ongole and Haryana; Buffalo breeds – Murrah, Surti, Mehsana and Nagpuri). Examples of high yielding exotic breeds (Holstein, Red Dane, Jersey and Brown Swiss). Nutritive value of milk. Utility of cattle – biogas, leather, gelatin and organic manure.
Apiculture – a brief account.
Poultry: Definition. Types of indigenous fowls with examples based on utility – layers, broilers and dual purpose (Aseel, Chittagong, Ghagus, Basra and Kadaknath). Examples of exotic breeds (White Leghorn, Cornish, Rhode Island Red Plymouth Rock and Newhampshire). Giriraj – origin and salient features.
Nutritive value of egg. Diseases ( Respiratory mycoplasmosis, Fowl pox candidiasis, Raniketh and Fowl cholera) – Mentioning of diseases and causative organisms only.
BIOLOGY – II
GENERAL BIOLOGY TOPICS
Molecular Biology: Nucleic acids: DNA – Occurrence, DNA as the genetic material (with the experiment of Avery as evidence), chemical composition, structure (Watson – Crick model), Semiconservative method of replication. RNA – Occurrence, chemical composition, brief account of structure and functions of genetic RNA, rRNA, mRNA and tRNA (clover – leaf model).
Gene: The gene, the genetic code and its characteristics, genetic control of protein synthesis (transcription and translation) and Lac operon. Concept of gene (prokaryotic and eukaryotic).
Biotechnology: Introduction: Scope of biotechnology.
Genetic Engineering: Introduction; Tools used in genetic engineering – Vectors (plasmid – pUC18), Enzymes (REN and Ligase), Host cell (E.coli) and Bioreactors.
Recombinant DNA technology and its applications: Insulin synthesis to be used as an example.
A brief account of: DNA fingerprinting, Gene therapy, Human genome project, Monoclonal antibodies.
Improvement of crop plants: Breeding techniques; Tissue culture technique – organ culture example: stem; transgenic plants example: Golden rice.
Improvement of animals: Breeding techniques and stem cell culture, transgenic animals, example- Cattle.
Hazards and safeguards of genetic engineering.
Plant histology & anatomy: Introduction: Definition and general classification of plant tissues.
Meristems: Definition, structure and classification based on position, origin and function (theories an apical organization not required).
Permanent Tissues – Distribution, structure and functions of: Simple tissues: Parenchyma (Chorenchyma and Aerenhyma), Collenchyma (angular, lacunar & lamellar) and Sclerenchyma – Fibres (Intraxylary and Extraxylary), Sclereids (Macrosclereids, Brachysclereids, Astrosclereids and Osteosclereids).
Complex tissues: Xylem and Phloem. Definition of the terms: Primary and secondary vascular tissues, exarch xylem, endarch xylem, collateral conjoint open and collateral conjoint closed vascular bundles, radial arrangement of vascular tissues. Secondary growth in dicot stem: intrastelar and extrastelar secondary growth. Anatomy of different parts of flowering plant.
Water relations of plants: Fundamental concepts: Importance of water to plants. Significance and definitions of the following: Imbibition, Diffusion, Osmosis, Endosmosis, Exosmosis, Plasmolysis, Deplasmolysis, Turgor pressure, Wall pressure, Osmotic pressure. Water potential and its components.
Absorption of water: Structure of root hair. Sources of water for plants (available water and nonavailable water). Region of absorption of water in plants. Entry of water from soil into xylem of root. Active and passive absorption of water (active absorption to show osmotic and non-osmotic processes).
Ascent of sap: Definition and evidences to show the involvement of xylem (the Balsam plant experiment). Composition of xylem sap. Transpiration pull theory – merits and demerits.
Loss of water in plants: Transpiration – Definition and types. Structure of a typical stomatal apparatus (dicot example only). Mechanism of stomatal movement – Steward’s Starch hydrolysis theory and K+ pump theory. Factors influencing the rate of transpiration (external). Significance of transpiration. A brief note on antitranspirants.
Guttation: A brief account of guttation – occurrence, causes and structure of hydathode.
Translocation of solutes: Definition and evidences in support of involvement of phloem in the process (Girdling experiment and Tracer method). Composition of phloem sap. Munch’s mass flow hypothesis with merits and demerits. Vein loading.
Mineral nutrition- study methods, essential elements, mechanism, soil as reservoir, Nitrogen metabolism.
Bioenergetics: Introduction: Light as the source of energy and ATP as energy currency.
Photosynthesis: Definition. Ultrastructure of the chloroplast. Photosynthetic pigments and their role; composition of photsystems I & II. (Molecular structures and formulae not required). Mechanism – light reaction – cyclic and noncyclic photophosprylations; Dark reaction (C3 pathway – Calvin cycle) – (details of regeneration steps not required); C4 pathway and CAM (definition and examples only). Influence of external factors on photosynthesis; Blackman’s law of limiting factors. Significance of photosynthesis.
Respiration: Definition and types (aerobic and anaerobic). Ultra structure of mitochondrion. Mechanism of aerobic respiration – Glycolysis, Krebs cycle and Terminal oxidation. Anaerobic respiration – Mechanism of fermentation in the presence of yeast and lactic acid bacteria. Role of external factors, respiratory quotient (RQ) and its significance and Pasteur effect.
Growth and growth regulators in plants: Growth: Definition, regions of growth, phases of growth and growth curve.
Growth regulators: Definition. Role of the following plant hormones (Details of experiments on discovery of hormones not required):
iv. Abscissic acid.
Synthetic growth regulators and their applications (with reference to IAA, IBA, NAA, 2, 4-D, BAP and Ethephon).
GENERAL BIOLOGY TOPICS
Genetics: Mendelian genetics: Mendel and his work. Definitions of the following terms: Allele, Phenotype, Genotype, Homozygous and Heterozygous. Principles of inheritance, dominance, law of segregation (purity of gametes) and law of independent assortment. Monohybrid cross, Dihybrid cross and Test cross.
Deviations from Mendelian laws: Incomplete dominance: Example – Flower colour in Mirabilis jalapa. Pleiotropy, Polygenic inheritance, chromosomal theory of inheritance, Sex determination, Linkage and crossing over, Pedigree.
Multiple allelism: Example – ABO blood groups and their inheritance in man: Blood typing; Rh factor with a note on erythroblastosis foetalis. Sex linked inheritance in man: Example – Inheritance of colour-blindness , hypertrichosis in man, Phenylketonuria.
Genetic disorders in man: Chromosomal disorders – Down’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome and Cri-du-Chat syndrome. Gene disorders – Sickle cell anaemia, haemophilia, Thalassemia.
Ecology: ecosystem- structure and function, biotic and abiotic factors, productivity, decomposition, energy flow, ecological pyramids, ecological succession, biogeochemical cycles( C, P, N),ecosystem services.
Population interactions- mutualism, competition, predation and parasitism.
Biodiversity: Definition and Types: Ecosystem or habitat diversity, Species diversity and Genetic diversity.
Biodiversity profiles of India and Karnataka: Species diversity, Endemic species, Threatened species and Endangered species.
Benefits of biodiversity: Economic – Traditional crop varieties and lesser known plants and animals of food value, medicinal plants harvested from wild habitat. Ecological/Social – For controlling soil – water regimes and hydrology, for efficient organic residue management and soil fertility management. Ethical – Cultural, Spiritual and Religious belief systems centred around the concept of sacred species, sacred groves and sacred landscapes.
Biodiversity depletion: Anthropocentric causes – urbanization, expansion of agriculture, deforestation, pollution, acidification of soil and water, mining activities, desertification and loss of soil fertility.
Concept of ecosystem sustainability: Conservation of natural resources based on traditional ecological knowledge (TEK): Conservation of Water – rainwater harvesting and watershed management. Conservation of soil – Prevention of soil erosion and maintenance of soil fertility: methods of soil conservation. Conservation of forests – Afforestation and maintenance of biosphere reserves. Conservation of wild life – (i) Setting up of national parks, sanctuaries, bioreserves and zoos (ii) Habitat improvement.
Global issues: Pollution – a brief account of air pollution, water pollution, solid wastes, radioactive waste and agricultural waste. Concept, causes, effects and control measures of the following: Global warming and greenhouse effect, Ozone layer depletion, Acid rain, Nuclear winter.
Man in health and diseases: Concept of Homeostasis – The central Dogma in physiology: Definition. Meaning of internal environment. Factors to be kept constant to achieve homeostasis. An example to illustrate homeostasis – regulation of blood glucose level by liver and pancreas through negative feedback. A note on diabetes mellitus.
Body defense and immunity: Introduction. Nonspecific body defenses: a) Surface barriers b) Cellular and bio-chemical defenses: phagocytosis, natural killer cells, interferons and inflammatory response. Specific body defenses (immunity): Antigen and antibody, role of B and T lymphocytes. Types of immunity: Active (infection and vaccination) and Passive (from mother and immune serum Y-globulins).
Digestion: Gross anatomy of human digestive system (structure of tooth not required). Components of food (concept of balanced diet). Physiology of digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Disorders: Causes, symptoms and prevention of hyperacidity and ulcer, jaundice and its types and hepatitis.
Circulation: Introduction. Gross anatomy of the human heart. Mechanism of working of heart – cardiac cycle, stroke volume, cardiac out-put, complete double circulation. Origin and conduction of heart beat. Mechanism of blood clotting (Best and Taylor theory). Blood pressure – hypotension and hypertension. Disorders – causes and symptoms of myocardial infarction and cyanosis.
Respiration: Gross anatomy of human respiratory system. Mechanism of respiration:
(i) Breathing (inspiration and expiration)
(ii) External respiration (exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveoli and blood)
(iii) Internal respiration (exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and body cells)
(iv) Cellular respiration. Disorders: Rhinitis, Asthma and bronchogenic carcinoma. Artificial breathing.
Excretion: Introduction. Gross structure of nephron, Physiology of urine formation. Chemical composition of urine. Disorders: a. Renal failure – acute and chronic b. Renal calculi. Kidney replacement therapy: a brief note on dialysis (haemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis) and kidney transplantation.
Locomotion and movement: types of movement, muscle, skeletal system, disorders.
Nervous system: Components – CNS, PNS & ANS. Human brain – structure (sagittal section only) and functions (functional areas of cerebrum not required). Human spinal cord – structure and functions. Meaning of reflex arc and reflex action. Sensory reception and processing – the eye, the ear. Disorders: Meaning, causes and symptoms of epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and Huntington’s chorea. Alcoholism and its effects. Narcotic drugs – meaning, listing of types (stimulants, depressants, analgesics and hallucinogens) and their effects. Drug abuse and addiction, Efforts to counter alcoholism and drug menace.
Chemical coordination: glands, hormones, human endocrine system including those of heart, kidney and gastrointestinal tract. Mechanism of hormone action.
Microbes and Man: household products, industrial products, sewage treatment, biogas, bio fertilizers, biopesticides.
Continuity of life: Developmental biology (basics of sexual reproduction) – Gametogenesis: Spermatogenesis – formation of spermatids and spermiogenesis (details of spermiogenesis are not required). Ultrastructure of human sperm. Oogenesis. Generalized structure of ovum.
Fertilization – Definition, Types – external and internal. Mechanism. Significance.
Types of Reproduction- a brief account.
Human Reproduction: A brief account of reproductive systems (organs), Fertilization, Implantation, Placenta. Role of gonadotropins and sex hormones in males and females (meaning of menstrual cycle to be highlighted).
Fertility control – Need for fertility control. Survey of family planning methods: Spacing methods (Barriers, IUDs, Hormonal and Physiological) and Terminal methods (Tubectomy and Vasectomy).
Infertility control – Meaning and causes of infertility in males and females. Remedical methods (Assisted conception methods) – IVF,ET,GIFT and ZIFT. (details of GIFT AND ZIFT not required).
Sexually transmitted diseases – Meaning, causative organisms, mode of infection, symptoms and preventive measures of gonorrhoea, syphilis and AIDS.